Can Broad-Range 16S Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Gene Polymerase Chain Reactions Improve the Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ABSTRACT We aim to evaluate the accuracy of the broad-range 16S polymerase chain reaction test in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis through a systematic review and meta-analysis.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, using the Medical Subject Headings terms "polymerase chain reaction," "RNA, ribosomal, 16S," and "bacterial meningitis." For our primary analysis, we examined the 16S polymerase chain reaction in culture-proven bacterial meningitis. In ancillary observations, we included studies of culture-negative presumed bacterial meningitis, in which there was high clinical suspicion for bacterial meningitis despite negative cerebrospinal fluid culture results. We extracted information necessary to calculate sensitivity and specificity and used bivariate hierarchic modeling meta-analysis methods to obtain pooled statistics. We also estimated potential sources of error and bias such as between-study heterogeneity and publication bias.
Fourteen of 299 studies met inclusion criteria for culture-proven bacterial meningitis; 448 (16.1%) of 2,780 subjects had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture results. Pooled analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 98%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90% to 97%), positive likelihood ratio of 16.26 (95% CI 9.07 to 29.14), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) for culture-proven bacterial meningitis. The polymerase chain reaction test result was also positive in 30% of cases of culture-negative presumed bacterial meningitis. There was significant heterogeneity between studies.
This meta-analysis supports the role of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic tool in bacterial meningitis. With further refinements in technology, the polymerase chain reaction test has the potential to become a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in the emergency department.
- SourceAvailable from: Nathan C Bahr[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances.Biomarkers in Medicine 10/2014; 8(9):1085-103. DOI:10.2217/bmm.14.67 · 2.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the value of microarray technology for the detection of intracranial bacterial infection. A small gene chip was prepared based on the four pathogens commonly known to cause intracranial infection and the corresponding six types of common resistance genes in The Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University and The Affiliated Haian People's Hospital of Nantong University. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were then collected from 30 patients with clinically diagnosed intracranial infection for the detection of the bacteria and resistance genes. The results were compared with the bacterial culture and sensitivity test results from the Department of Clinical Laboratories. The laboratory bacterial culture took 4-5 days, and revealed that 12 cases were positive and 18 cases were negative for bacteria. The microarray analysis took 1 day, and bacteria and resistance genes were detected in 15 cases. The 16S gene and drug resistance genes were detected in 8 cases; however, the bacterial strain was not identified. Seven cases appeared negative for bacteria and resistance genes. Microarray technology is rapid, sensitive and suitable for use in the detection of intracranial infections and other diseases for which conventional bacterial culture has a low positive rate.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 02/2014; 7(2):496-500. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1443 · 0.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A universal PCR assay for bacteria and fungi detected meningitis pathogens in 65% of 20 CSF samples from patients with suspected CNS infections compared to a 35% detection rate by culture and/or microscopy. Thus the PCR assay can improve diagnosis of infective meningitis when standard methods provide a negative result.Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2014; 52(5). DOI:10.1128/JCM.00469-14 · 4.23 Impact Factor