Income of Living Kidney Donors and the Income Difference Between Living Kidney Donors and Their Recipients in the United States.
ABSTRACT Disincentives for living kidney donation are common but are poorly understood. We studied 54 483 living donor kidney transplants in the United States between 2000 and 2009, limiting to those with valid zip code data to allow determination of median household income by linkage to the 2000 U.S. Census. We then determined the income and income difference of donors and recipients. The median household income in donors and recipients was $46 334 ±$17 350 and $46 439 ±$17 743, respectively. Donation-related expenses consume ≥ 1 month's income in 76% of donors. The mean ± standard deviation income difference between recipients and donors in transplants involving a wealthier recipient was $22 760 ± 14 792 and in 90% of transplants the difference was <$40 000 dollars. The findings suggest that the capacity for donors to absorb the financial consequences of donation, or of recipients to reimburse allowable expenses, is limited. There were few transplants with a large difference in recipient and donor income, suggesting that the scope and value of any payment between donors and recipients is likely to be small. We conclude that most donors and recipients have similar modest incomes, suggesting that the costs of donation are a significant burden in the majority of living donor transplants.
- American Journal of Transplantation 02/2001; 1 Suppl 2:3-95. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extent to which renal allotransplantation - as compared with long-term dialysis - improves survival among patients with end-stage renal disease is controversial, because those selected for transplantation may have a lower base-line risk of death. In an attempt to distinguish the effects of patient selection from those of transplantation itself, we conducted a longitudinal study of mortality in 228,552 patients who were receiving long-term dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Of these patients, 46,164 were placed on a waiting list for transplantation, 23,275 of whom received a first cadaveric transplant between 1991 and 1997. The relative risk of death and survival were assessed with time-dependent nonproportional-hazards analysis, with adjustment for age, race, sex, cause of end-stage renal disease, geographic region, time from first treatment for end-stage renal disease to placement on the waiting list, and year of initial placement on the list. Among the various subgroups, the standardized mortality ratio for the patients on dialysis who were awaiting transplantation (annual death rate, 6.3 per 100 patient-years) was 38 to 58 percent lower than that for all patients on dialysis (annual death rate, 16.1 per 100 patient-years). The relative risk of death during the first 2 weeks after transplantation was 2.8 times as high as that for patients on dialysis who had equal lengths of follow-up since placement on the waiting list, but at 18 months the risk was much lower (relative risk, 0.32; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.35; P<0.001). The likelihood of survival became equal in the two groups within 5 to 673 days after transplantation in all the subgroups of patients we examined. The long-term mortality rate was 48 to 82 percent lower among transplant recipients (annual death rate, 3.8 per 100 patient-years) than patients on the waiting list, with relatively larger benefits among patients who were 20 to 39 years old, white patients, and younger patients with diabetes. Among patients with end-stage renal disease, healthier patients are placed on the waiting list for transplantation, and long-term survival is better among those on the waiting list who eventually undergo transplantation.New England Journal of Medicine 12/1999; 341(23):1725-30. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated unrelated living kidney donation in the United States and examined the characteristics of unrelated donor-recipient pairs. We accessed United Network for Organ Sharing files to identify adult living donor renal transplant recipients who received a transplant between 1997 and 2007. We evaluated factors associated with unrelated donation and compared a composite index of the socioeconomic characteristics of donor and recipient ZIP Codes between living unrelated and living related renal transplantation pairs. Spousal pairs were categorized as living related. Of 39,168 adult renal transplant recipients 19% underwent living unrelated renal transplantation. These recipients were more likely white (vs black, Hispanic and other race OR 0.77-0.82, p <0.05) and more highly educated (college vs less than high school OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.77), and more commonly received care at high volume transplant centers (vs lowest volume centers OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.95). Living unrelated renal transplantation recipients and donors lived in higher socioeconomic status index ZIP Codes than living related recipients (mean ± SD recipients and donors 0.62 ± 3.74 and 0.44 ± 3.63 vs 0.03 ± 3.85 and 0.10 ± 3.87, respectively, each p <0.001). Living unrelated renal transplantation donors and recipients are generally of higher socioeconomic status than their living related renal transplantation counterparts. There is restricted access to unrelated donors among underserved populations.The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(5):1760-5. · 4.02 Impact Factor