Microstructural abnormalities of white matter differentiate pediatric and adult-onset bipolar disorder
ABSTRACT White-matter microstructure, known to undergo significant developmental transformation, is abnormal in bipolar disorder (BD). Available evidence suggests that white-matter deviation may be more pronounced in pediatric than adult-onset BD. The present study aimed to examine how white-matter microstructure deviates from a typical maturational trajectory in BD.
Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured in 35 individuals presenting with first episode BD (type I) and 46 healthy controls (HC) (aged 9-42) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Patients were medication free and close to illness onset at the time of the DTI scans. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to examine the center of white-matter tracts, and FA was extracted from nine tracts of interest. Axial, radial, and mean diffusivity were examined in post-hoc analyses.
The left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) showed significantly lower FA in pediatric than adult-onset BD. The lower FA in BD was due primarily to greater radial, rather than decreased axial, diffusivity.
The ALIC connects the frontal lobes with archistriatum, thalamus, and medial temporal regions, and alteration in these pathways may contribute to mood dysregulation in BD. Abnormalities in this pathway appear to be associated with an earlier onset of illness and thus may reflect a greater susceptibility to illness.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mani N Pavuluri, Nov 03, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined multiple measures of white matter (WM) differences in youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder (FR-BD). To investigate WM in the FR-BD group, we used three measures of WM structure and two methods of analysis. We used fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in 25 youth with familial risk for bipolar disorder, defined as having both a parent with BD and mood dysregulation, and 16 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched healthy controls. We conducted a whole brain voxelwise analysis using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Subsequently, we conducted a complementary atlas-based, region-of-interest analysis using Diffeomap to confirm results seen in TBSS. When TBSS was used, significant widespread between-group differences were found showing increased FA, increased AD, and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, cingulate, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum. Atlas-based analysis confirmed significant between-group differences, with increased FA and decreased RD in the FR-BD group in the SLF, cingulum, and SFOF. We found significant widespread WM tract aberrations in youth with familial risk for BD using two complementary methods of DTI analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 02/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.02.007 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes of white matter (WM) microstructure have been proposed as structural biomarkers of bipolar disorder (BD). The chronotherapeutic combination of repeated total sleep deprivation and morning light therapy (TSD+LT) can acutely reverse depressive symptoms in approximately 60% of patients, and it has been proposed as a model antidepressant treatment to investigate the neurobiological correlates of rapid antidepressant response. We tested if baseline DTI measures can predict response to treatment in 70 in-patients affected by a major depressive episode in the course of BD, treated with chronotherapeutics for one week. We performed whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics with threshold-free cluster enhancement for the DTI measures of WM microstructure integrity: fractional anisotropy, axial, radial, and mean diffusivity. Increased mean and radial water diffusivity correlated with poor antidepressant response to TSD+LT in core WM tracts which are crucial for the functional integrity of the brain, including corpus callosum, corona radiata, cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and thalamic radiation. Limitations include issues such as generalizability, possible population stratification, medications and their effects on DTI measures, and no placebo control for chronotherapeutics. We could not consider other factors such as gene-environment interactions. The association of increased radial and mean diffusivity with poor response to chronotherapeutic treatment warrants interest for the study of DTI measures of WM microstructure as markers for treatment response in bipolar depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174C:233-240. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.010 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairments are a feature of bipolar disorder (BD) and could be worsened by inflammatory cytokines. We determined whether (i) serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was increased in elderly BD subjects; (ii) whether IL-1RA was associated with worse neurocognitive function; and (iii) whether IL-1RA was associated with white matter integrity. Twenty-one euthymic BD patients (65 +/- 9 years) with serum available for IL-1RA measures by enzyme-linked immunoassays were compared with 26 similarly aged control participants. Four factor analysis-derived z-scores and a global z-score were obtained from a battery of 21 neurocognitive tests. Diffusion tensor images were used to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA), and an automated labeling pathway algorithm was used to obtain white matter hyperintensity burden. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was elevated in BD subjects compared with controls (439+/-326 pg/mL vs. 269+/-109 pg/mL; p = 0.004). Moreover, IL-1RA was inversely correlated with three cognitive function factors and global cognition (r = -0.37; p = 0.01). IL-1RA continued to correlate with global cognitive function even when covarying for either IL-6 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Although FA was lower in BD subjects (0.368 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.381 +/- 0.01; p = 0.02), IL-1RA was not associated with FA or white matter hyperintensity burden. Elevated serum levels of IL-1RA in BD subjects, even during euthymic states, were associated with worse cognitive function. This association was not explained by co-occurring increases in IL-6, by decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nor by measures of white matter integrity. These cross-sectional findings support the possibility that the IL-1 family may contribute to cognitive impairments in BD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2014; 29(6). DOI:10.1002/gps.4048 · 3.09 Impact Factor