The effects of varying the electron energy and cationizing agents on electron activated dissociation (ExD) of metal-adducted oligosaccharides were explored, using permethylated maltoheptaose as the model system. Across the examined range of electron energy, the metal-adducted oligosaccharide exhibited several fragmentation processes, including electron capture dissociation (ECD) at low energies, hot-ECD at intermediate energies, and electronic excitation dissociation (EED) at high energies. The dissociation threshold depended on the metal charge carrier(s), whereas the types and sequence spans of product ions were influenced by the metal-oligosaccharide binding pattern. Theoretical modeling contributed insight into the metal-dependent behavior of carbohydrates during low-energy ECD. When ExD was applied to a permethylated high mannose N-linked glycan, EED provided more structural information than either collision-induced dissociation (CID) or low-energy ECD, thus demonstrating its potential for oligosaccharide linkage analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nature excels at breaking down glycans into their components, typically via enzymatic acid-base catalysis to achieve selective cleavage of the glycosidic bond. Noting the importance of proton transfer in the active site of many of these enzymes, we describe a sequestered proton reagent for acid-catalyzed glycan sequencing (PRAGS) that derivatizes the reducing terminus of glycans with a pyridine moiety possessing moderate proton affinity. Gas-phase collisional activation of PRAGS-derivatized glycans predominately generates C1-O glycosidic bond cleavages retaining the charge on the reducing terminus. The resulting systematic PRAGS-directed deconstruction of the glycan can be analyzed to extract glycan composition and sequence. Glycans are also highly susceptible to dissociation by free radicals, mainly reactive oxygen species, which inspired our development of a free radical activated glycan sequencing (FRAGS) reagent, which combines a free radical precursor with a pyridine moiety that can be coupled to the reducing terminus of target glycans. Collisional activation of FRAGS-derivatized glycans generates a free radical that reacts to yield abundant cross-ring cleavages, glycosidic bond cleavages, and combinations of these types of cleavages with charge retention at the reducing terminus. Branched sites are identified with the FRAGS reagent by the specific fragmentation patterns that are observed only at these locations. Mechanisms of dissociation as well as application of the reagents for both linear and highly branched glycan structure analysis are investigated and discussed. The approach developed here for glycan structure analysis offers unique advantages compared to earlier studies employing mass spectrometry for this purpose.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2013; 135(29). DOI:10.1021/ja402810t · 12.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Powerful new strategies based on mass spectrometry are revolutionizing the structural analysis and profiling of glycans and glycoconjugates. We survey here the major biosynthetic pathways that underlie the biological diversity in glycobiology, with emphasis on glycoproteins, and the approaches that can be used to address the resulting heterogeneity. Included among these are derivatizations, on- and off-line chromatography, electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and a variety of dissociation methods, the recently introduced electron-based techniques being of particular interest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structural complexity and diversity of glycans parallel their multilateral functions in living systems. To better understand the vital roles glycans play in biological processes, it is imperative to develop analytical tools that can provide detailed glycan structural information. This was conventionally achieved by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) analysis using collision-induced dissociation (CID) as the fragmentation method. However, the MSn approach lacks the sensitivity and throughput needed to analyze complex glycan mixtures from biological sources, often available in limited quantities. We define herein the critical parameters for a recently developed fragmentation technique, electronic excitation dissociation (EED), which can yield rich structurally informative fragment ions during liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS/MS analysis of glycans. We further demonstrate that permethylation, reducing end labeling and judicious selection of the metal charge carrier can greatly facilitate spectral interpretation. With its high sensitivity, throughput, and compatibility with on-line chromatographic separation techniques, EED appears to hold great promise for large-scale glycomics studies.
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