Nanosphere Templated Continuous PEDOT:PSS Films with Low Percolation Threshold for Application in Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.
ABSTRACT Nanometer-sized monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres (PS NS) were designed as an opal template for the formation of three-dimensionally continuous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films. The resultant films were successfully applied as the anode buffer layer (ABL) to produce highly efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) with enhanced stability. The conductivity of the PS NS-PEDOT:PSS films was maintained up to ϕ(PS) = 0.75-0.80, indicating that the formation of continuous PEDOT:PSS films using PS NS templates was successful. To demonstrate the applicability of the PS NS-PEDOT:PSS film for organic electronics, the PS NS-PEDOT:PSS films were used as ABLs in two different PSCs: P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:OXCBA. The photovoltaic performances of both PSCs were maintained up to ϕ(PS) = 0.8. In particular, the power conversion efficiency of the P3HT:OXCBA PSC with a PS NS-PEDOT:PSS ABL (ϕ(PS) = 0.8) was greater than 5% and the air stability of the device was significantly enhanced.