New drugs, procedures, and devices for hypertension
ABSTRACT Successful treatment of hypertension is difficult despite the availability of several classes of antihypertensive drug, and the value of strategies to combat the effect of adverse lifestyle behaviours on blood pressure. In this paper, we discuss two promising therapeutic alternatives for patients with resistant hypertension: novel drugs, including new pharmacological classes (such as vasopeptidase inhibitors and aldosterone synthase inhibitors) and new molecules from present pharmacological classes with additional properties in blood-pressure or metabolism pathways; and new procedures and devices, including stimulation of arterial baroreceptors and catheter-based renal denervation. Although several pharmacological targets have been discovered with promising preclinical results, the clinical development of novel antihypertensive drugs has been more difficult and less productive than expected. The effectiveness and safety of new devices and procedures should be carefully assessed in patients with resistant hypertension, thus leading to a new era of outcome trials and evidence-based guidelines.
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Article: Neurotoxicity in uremia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dialysis patient is aware that his behavior evokes reciprocal and complicating responses from important people in his environment. These interactions are perceived and conducted by neurochemical mechanisms which may be impaired in the abnormal chemical environment imposed in renal failure. It is the behaviors we comprehend as indicators of disordered nervous mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical that neurophysiological and neurobehavioral phenomena should be measured quantitatively in order 1) to estimate objectively the patients' success in achieving the goal of maintenance dialysis treatment, 2) to assess the comparative adequacy of dialysis regimens and 3) to provide objective endpoint measures which are relevant to uremia for further investigations of the etiology and pathogenesis of these critically significant uremic manifestations. Our experimental results illustrate that: 1) measures of conduction velocity, distal latency and response amplitudes, as employed by us, were relatively insensitive in the patients and circumstances studied; 2) several neurophysiological measures, i.e., the spontaneous EEG, VER latency and, perhaps, photic stimulation, on the other hand, are highly correlated with the severity of renal failure; 3) behavioral measures of sustained attention and alertness (TMT), of short-term memory (ASTM) and of cognitive manipulation of symbols (AR) are also highly correlated with the severity of renal failure; 4) some measured abnormalities improve following dialysis, but not always to normal--three residual impairments may indicate dialysis in adequacy; 5) several of these measures can provide objective evidence for adequacy of dialysis and other clinical and treatment effects in patients with renal failure.Kidney international. Supplement 03/1975;
- The Lancet 08/2012; 380(9841):539-41. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61219-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is associated with large and small vascular remodeling that impacts cardiovascular prognosis. Longitudinal follow-up of hypertensive patients has shown that large arterial stiffness decreases partly independently of blood pressure reduction, suggesting specific pharmacological effects of antihypertensive therapy. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are among the agents that have been shown to affect vascular remodeling to a greater degree. Lifestyle modifications, including exercise and weight reduction, also improve large and small vascular remodeling. New antihypertensive drugs, including neprilysin inhibitors associated with an angiotensin receptor blocker, aldosterone synthase inhibitors and new devices such as renal denervation and baroreceptor stimulation, may exert beneficial effects on vascular remodeling and are currently under evaluation.Current Hypertension Reports 12/2012; 15. DOI:10.1007/s11906-012-0325-0 · 3.90 Impact Factor