New drugs, procedures, and devices for hypertension.
ABSTRACT Successful treatment of hypertension is difficult despite the availability of several classes of antihypertensive drug, and the value of strategies to combat the effect of adverse lifestyle behaviours on blood pressure. In this paper, we discuss two promising therapeutic alternatives for patients with resistant hypertension: novel drugs, including new pharmacological classes (such as vasopeptidase inhibitors and aldosterone synthase inhibitors) and new molecules from present pharmacological classes with additional properties in blood-pressure or metabolism pathways; and new procedures and devices, including stimulation of arterial baroreceptors and catheter-based renal denervation. Although several pharmacological targets have been discovered with promising preclinical results, the clinical development of novel antihypertensive drugs has been more difficult and less productive than expected. The effectiveness and safety of new devices and procedures should be carefully assessed in patients with resistant hypertension, thus leading to a new era of outcome trials and evidence-based guidelines.
- SourceAvailable from: Henrique De Azevedo Futuro Neto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that changes in neurotransmission within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are important to maintain the high blood pressure (BP) was tested in Goldblatt one kidney-one clip hypertension model (1K-1C). Male Wistar rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.2 g/kg, i.v.), and the effects of bilateral microinjections into the RVLM of the following drugs were measured in 1K-1C or control groups: glutamate (0.1 mol/L, 100 nL) and its antagonist kynurenic acid (0.02 mol/L, 100 nL), the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan (0.01 mol/L, 100 nL), and the nonselective 5-HT receptor antagonist methiothepin (0.06 mol/L, 100 nL). Experiments in 1K-1C rats were performed 6 weeks after surgery. In anesthetized rats glutamate response was larger in hypertensive than in normotensive rats (H: Δ67 ± 6.5; N: Δ43 ± 3.54 mmHg). In contrast, kynurenic acid microinjection into the RVLM did not cause any change in BP in either group. The blockade of either AT1 or 5-HT receptors within the RVLM decreased BP only in 1K-1C rats. A largest depressor response was caused by 5-HT receptor blockade. The data suggest that 5-HT and AT1 receptors act tonically to drive RVLM in 1K-1C rats, and these actions within RVLM contribute to the pathogenesis of this model of hypertension.01/2014; 2014:723939. DOI:10.1155/2014/723939
Article: Neurotoxicity in uremia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dialysis patient is aware that his behavior evokes reciprocal and complicating responses from important people in his environment. These interactions are perceived and conducted by neurochemical mechanisms which may be impaired in the abnormal chemical environment imposed in renal failure. It is the behaviors we comprehend as indicators of disordered nervous mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical that neurophysiological and neurobehavioral phenomena should be measured quantitatively in order 1) to estimate objectively the patients' success in achieving the goal of maintenance dialysis treatment, 2) to assess the comparative adequacy of dialysis regimens and 3) to provide objective endpoint measures which are relevant to uremia for further investigations of the etiology and pathogenesis of these critically significant uremic manifestations. Our experimental results illustrate that: 1) measures of conduction velocity, distal latency and response amplitudes, as employed by us, were relatively insensitive in the patients and circumstances studied; 2) several neurophysiological measures, i.e., the spontaneous EEG, VER latency and, perhaps, photic stimulation, on the other hand, are highly correlated with the severity of renal failure; 3) behavioral measures of sustained attention and alertness (TMT), of short-term memory (ASTM) and of cognitive manipulation of symbols (AR) are also highly correlated with the severity of renal failure; 4) some measured abnormalities improve following dialysis, but not always to normal--three residual impairments may indicate dialysis in adequacy; 5) several of these measures can provide objective evidence for adequacy of dialysis and other clinical and treatment effects in patients with renal failure.Kidney international. Supplement 03/1975;
- The Lancet 08/2012; 380(9841):539-41. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61219-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor