Significance of Short Chain Fatty Acid Transport by Members of the Monocarboxylate Transporter Family (MCT).
ABSTRACT Metabolism of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the brain, particularly that of acetate, appears to occur mainly in astrocytes. The differential use has been attributed to transport, but the extent to which transmembrane movement of SCFA is mediated by transporters has not been investigated systematically. Here we tested the possible contribution of monocarboxylate transporters to SCFA uptake by measuring fluxes with labelled compounds and by following changes of the intracellular pH in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the isoforms MCT1, MCT2 or MCT4. All isoforms mediated significant transport of acetate. Formate, however, was transported only by MCT1. The contribution of MCT1 to SCFA transport was determined by using phloretin as a high-affinity inhibitor, which allowed a paired comparison of oocytes with and without active MCT1.
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ABSTRACT: Monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate play a central role in cellular metabolism and metabolic communication between tissues. Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, which is catalysed by a recently identified family of proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Nine MCT-related sequences have so far been identified in mammals, each having a different tissue distribution, whereas six related proteins can be recognized in Caenorhabditis elegans and 4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct demonstration of proton-linked lactate and pyruvate transport has been demonstrated for mammalian MCT1-MCT4, but only for MCT1 and MCT2 have detailed analyses of substrate and inhibitor kinetics been described following heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. MCT1 is ubiquitously expressed, but is especially prominent in heart and red muscle, where it is up-regulated in response to increased work, suggesting a special role in lactic acid oxidation. By contrast, MCT4 is most evident in white muscle and other cells with a high glycolytic rate, such as tumour cells and white blood cells, suggesting it is expressed where lactic acid efflux predominates. MCT2 has a ten-fold higher affinity for substrates than MCT1 and MCT4 and is found in cells where rapid uptake at low substrate concentrations may be required, including the proximal kidney tubules, neurons and sperm tails. MCT3 is uniquely expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium. The mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of different MCT isoforms remain to be established. However, there is evidence for alternative splicing of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions and the use of alternative promoters for some isoforms. In addition, MCT1 and MCT4 have been shown to interact specifically with OX-47 (CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with a single transmembrane helix. This interaction appears to assist MCT expression at the cell surface. There is still much work to be done to characterize the properties of the different isoforms and their regulation, which may have wide-ranging implications for health and disease. In the future it will be interesting to explore the linkage of genetic diseases to particular MCTs through their chromosomal location.Biochemical Journal 11/1999; 343 Pt 2:281-99. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SLC5A8, a tumor suppressor gene down-regulated in human colon cancer, codes for a transporter in the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter gene family, but the definitive functional identity of the transporter protein is not known. Since this gene is expressed abundantly in the colon where short-chain fatty acids are generated by bacterial fermentation, we tested the hypothesis that it codes for a Na(+)-coupled transporter for these fatty acids. The coding region of SLC5A8 mRNA was amplified from human intestine and expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transport function was monitored by uptake of radiolabeled substrates and by substrate-induced currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Uptake of short-chain fatty acids (lactate, pyruvate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) in oocytes expressing SLC5A8 was severalfold higher than in uninjected oocytes. Exposure of SLC5A8-expressing oocytes to these fatty acids induced inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions in a Na(+)-dependent manner. These currents were saturable and the substrate concentrations needed for half-maximal induction of the current were in the range of 0.08-2.5 mm. The substrate-induced currents decreased as the carbon chain length of the substrates increased. The Na(+)-activation kinetics indicated involvement of more than one Na(+) ion in the activation process. Direct measurements of substrate (propionate) and charge transfer showed that three positive charges are transferred into oocytes per substrate molecule. These studies establish the functional identity of SLC5A8 as a Na(+)-coupled transporter for short-chain fatty acids.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(14):13293-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the most abundant organic anions in the human colon. SCFA play a pivotal role in maintaining homeostasis in the colon. Particularly butyrate induces cell differentiation and regulates growth and proliferation of colonic mucosal epithelial cells, whereas it reduces the growth rate of colorectal cancer cell. Previous studies by several groups, including our own, using isolated membrane vesicles have demonstrated that the uptake of butyrate is at least in part mediated by a non-electrogenic SCFA-/HCO3- antiporter. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) whether Caco-2 cells could serve as an experimental model to assess the mechanisms of SCFA transport, and (2) whether monocarboxlate transporters could play a role in SCFA transport in these cells. Caco-2 cells were found to transport 14C-butyrate in a concentration and time dependent manner. The uptake was sodium independent, but was stimulated by lowering extracellular pH. The uptake of 500 microM butyrate was reduced by 49.6% +/- 3.3% in the presence of propionate and by 57.2% +/- 4.8% in the presence of 10 mM L-lactate. The addition of 1 mM alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and phloretin, both known to be potent inhibitors of MCT1, decreased the uptake of 500 microM 14C-butyrate by 59.4% +/- 4.1% and 48.9% +/- 3.3%, respectively, whereas similar concentrations of DIDS did not have any effect. These data suggest that the uptake of butyrate in Caco-2 cells occurs via a carrier mediated transport system specific for monocarboxylic acids, which is in accordance with characteristics of the MCT 1.European Journal of Nutrition 07/2000; 39(3):121-5. · 3.13 Impact Factor