Prospective Study on Waist Circumference and Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality.
ABSTRACT Background: The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between waist circumference and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in relatively lean Japanese subjects. Methods and Results: A total of 3,554 men and 4,472 women who had no history of CVD were examined and their waist circumference measured at baseline. The subjects were aged ≥40 years and were obtained from 3 prospective cohort studies during 1988-1996. Hazard ratios for all-cause and CVD mortality were analyzed over a follow-up period of 14.7 years using a Cox proportional hazards model and penalized spline method, after adjustment for study cohort, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of waist circumference in men was associated with a linear reduction in all-cause mortality risk (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.89; P for trend=0.001). CVD mortality risk was increased in men aged ≤65 years with a higher waist circumference. This relationship was U-shaped. Waist circumference was not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality risk in women. Conclusions: Waist circumference was associated inversely with increased risk of all-cause death in men, but not in women. Middle-aged men with a greater waist circumference potentially have an increased risk of CVD mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Although malnutrition indicates an unfavorable prognosis in some clinical settings, the association between nutritional indexes and outcomes for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is unclear. All the previously established objective nutritional indexes were evaluated. The controlling nutritional status score (CONUT), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were determined for 388 consecutive patients with CHF (mean age 69.6±12.3 years). The prevalence of malnutrition in this cohort was 60-69%. Patients were followed prospectively, with the endpoints being death due to a cardiovascular event or re-hospitalization. There were 130 events, including 33 deaths and 97 re-hospitalizations, during a mean follow-up period of 28.4 months. Patients experiencing cardiovascular events showed impaired nutritional status, higher CONUT scores, lower PNI scores, and lower GNRI scores, compared with those who did not experience cardiovascular events. CONUT score [hazard ratio 40.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.8-154.8], PNI score (hazard ratio 6.4, 95% CI 5.4-25.1), and GNRI score (hazard ratio 11.6, 95% CI 3.7-10.0) were independently associated with cardiovascular events. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that there was a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events in patients who were malnourished than in those who were not. Malnutrition was common in patients with CHF. Evaluation of nutritional status may provide additional prognostic information in patients with CHF.Journal of Cardiology 06/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor