Posterior Compartment Prolapse: A Urogynecology Perspective

Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA.
Urologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.2). 08/2012; 39(3):361-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2012.06.005
Source: PubMed


Posterior compartment prolapse is often caused by a defect in the rectovaginal septum, also known as Denonvillier's fascia. Patients with symptomatic posterior compartment prolapse can present with bulge symptoms as well as defecatory dysfunction, including constipation, tenesmus, splinting, and fecal incontinence. The diagnosis can successfully be made on clinical examination. Treatment of posterior prolapse includes pessaries and surgery. Both traditional colporrhaphy and site-specific defect repair have excellent success rates. Complications from surgery can include sexual dysfunction, de novo dyspareunia, and defecatory dysfunction. Compared with native tissue repair, biological and synthetic grafting has not improved overall anatomic and subjective outcomes.

5 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate clinical outcome of rectocele repair using xenograft 3 years after surgery. Twenty-three patients who completed evaluation preoperatively and 1 year after surgery were assessed at a 3-year follow-up. Clinical examination was performed preoperatively, and at the 1- and 3-year follow-ups, with the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Symptom assessment was performed with a validated bowel function questionnaire including questions on sexual function. There were no graft-related complications during the 3 years following surgery. Preoperatively, all patients had stage II prolapse of the posterior vaginal wall and a rectocele verified at defecography. At the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 29 patients (38%) had rectocele of stage II or more, and 4 patients were reoperated. At 3-year follow-up 7 of 23 patients (30%) had rectocele of stage II or more. When including the 4 early anatomical recurrences, a total of 11 of 27 patients (41%) had rectocele of stage II or more at 3-year follow-up. Preoperatively, all patients reported varying degrees of rectal emptying difficulties and symptoms of bowel dysfunction. There was a significant decrease in rectal emptying difficulties (P < .01), sense of incomplete evacuation (P < .01), need for manually assisted defecation (P < .05), and symptoms of pelvic heaviness (P < .001) at the 3-year follow-up compared with preoperatively. Cure of rectal emptying difficulties was reported by fewer than 50% of patients. There were no significant changes in anal incontinence scores or symptoms of sexual dysfunction at the 3-year follow-up compared with preoperatively. Rectocele repair using porcine dermal graft was associated with an unsatisfactory anatomical cure rate and persistent bowel-emptying difficulties in the majority of patients 3 years postoperatively. II-3.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2006; 107(1):59-65. DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000192547.58102.ab · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the anatomic and functional outcomes of site-specific rectocele repair and standard posterior colporrhaphy. We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent repair of advanced posterior vaginal prolapse in our institution between July 1998 and June 2002 with at least 1 year of follow-up. This study comprised 124 consecutive patients following site-specific rectocele repair and 183 consecutive patients following standard posterior colporrhaphy without levator ani plication. Baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index, parity, previous pelvic surgeries, and preoperative prolapse were not significantly different between the 2 study groups. Recurrence of rectocele beyond the midvaginal plane (33% versus 14%, P = .001) and beyond the hymenal ring (11% versus 4%, P = .02), recurrence of a symptomatic bulge (11% versus 4%, P = .02), and postoperative Bp point (-2.2 versus -2.7 cm, P = .001) were significantly higher after the site-specific rectocele repair. Rates of postoperative dyspareunia (16% versus 17%), constipation (37% versus 34%), and fecal incontinence (19% versus 18%) were not significantly different between the 2 study groups. Site-specific rectocele repair is associated with higher anatomic recurrence rates and similar rates of dyspareunia and bowel symptoms than standard posterior colporrhaphy. II-3.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2005; 105(2):314-8. DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000151990.08019.30 · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of EP is complicated by the lack of any gold standard and a shifting clinical emphasis as management regimens go in and out of favor. As with all functional bowel disease, there is a residue of patients who are difficult to manage, and in whom a clinician will want maximum information before deciding on treatment. The examination has been criticized as lacking clinical relevance, and of having poor interobserver reliability except for rectal emptying and rectocele formation. Others have found a higher (83.3%) observer accuracy and a high yield of positive diagnoses. A questionnaire showed that clinicians found EP of major benefit in 40%, altering management from surgical to medical in 14% and vice versa in 4%. Radiographic examinations only impact on clinical management when findings alter management. Management protocols are evolving in functional disorders, but important features that EP reveals are anismus, trapping in rectoceles, IAI, and rectal prolapse. EP is the only method to diagnose some of these conditions and within defined parameters is extremely valuable in clinical management.
    Radiologic Clinics of North America 04/2003; 41(2):425-41. DOI:10.1016/S0033-8389(02)00116-1 · 1.98 Impact Factor
Show more