The Barrier Within: Endothelial Transport of Hormones
ABSTRACT Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.
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ABSTRACT: As insulin entry into muscle interstitium is rate-limiting for its overall peripheral action, defining the route and regulation of its entry is critical. Caveolin-1 is required for caveola formation in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and for EC insulin uptake. Whether this requirement reflects simply the need for caveola availability or involves a more active role for caveolae/caveolin-1 is not known. Here, we examined the role of insulin-stimulated tyrosine 14 (Tyr(14))-caveolin-1 phosphorylation in mediating EC insulin uptake and the role of cellular Src-kinase (cSrc), TNF-α/IL-6 and high fat diet (HFD) in regulating this process. Freshly isolated ECs from normal or HFD-fed rats and/or cultured ECs were treated with FITC-labelled or regular insulin with or without a Src or phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, TNF-α or IL-6, or transfecting FLAG-tagged wild-type (WT) or mutant (Y14F) caveolin-1. Tyr(14)-caveolin-1/Tyr(416) cSrc phosphorylation and FITC-insulin uptake were quantified by immunostaining and/or western blots. Insulin stimulated Tyr(14)-caveolin-1 phosphorylation during EC insulin uptake. Inhibiting cSrc, but not phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase, reduced insulin-stimulated caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibiting cSrc reduced FITC-insulin uptake by ∼50%. Overexpression of caveolin-1Y14F inhibited, while overexpression of WT caveolin-1 increased, FITC-insulin uptake. Exposure of ECs to TNF-α or IL-6, or to 1-week HFD feeding eliminated insulin-stimulated caveolin-1 phosphorylation and inhibited FITC-insulin uptake to a similar extent. Insulin stimulation of its own uptake requires caveolin-1 phosphorylation and Src-kinase activity. HFD in vivo and proinflammatory cytokines in vitro both inhibit this process.Diabetologia 03/2015; 58(6). DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3546-3 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract To address physiological and pathophysiological meanings of condensing effect of albumin in lymph through collecting lymph vessel walls, we established human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and evaluated the size-dependent regulation of the permeability of such layers to hydrophilic substances. We also investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1β on the permeability and on the morphology of human LEC. Significant amounts of 4 kDa dextran, but not 12 or 66 kDa dextran, passed through the layers. TNF-α or IL-1β induced significant increases in the permeability to 4 and 12 kDa dextrans. TNF-α or IL-1β also produced significant redistribution of the cytoskeletal F-actin in the LEC, which resulted in changes in their shape. Pretreatment with Y-27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, or PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation inhibitor, significantly abolished the TNF-α- or IL-1β-induced increases in the permeability of the layers to 4 and 12 kDa dextrans. Y-27632 and PD98059 significantly inhibited the changes in the F-actin distribution of the LEC produced by TNF-α or IL-1β. TNF-α or IL-1β caused significant increases in ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in the LEC, which were significantly inhibited by Y-27632 or PD98059. These findings suggest that the human LEC layer plays key roles in the transport of hydrophilic substances through collecting lymph vessel walls and that TNF-α or IL-1β significantly increases the permeability of the layers to 4 and 12 kDa dextrans via Rho kinase activation and the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation-mediated reorganization of F-actin in the LEC.Lymphatic Research and Biology 09/2014; 12(3):124-135. DOI:10.1089/lrb.2014.0002 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium is a dynamic structure responsible for the separation and regulated movement of biological material between circulation and interstitial fluid. Hormones and nutrients can move across the endothelium either via a transcellular or paracellular route. Transcellular endothelial transport is well understood and broadly acknowledged to play an important role in the normal and abnormal physiology of endothelial function. However, less is known about the role of the paracellular route. Although the concept of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes is now widely accepted, we suggest that alterations in paracellular transport should be studied in greater detail and incorporated into this model. In this review we provide an overview of endothelial paracellular permeability and discuss its potential importance in contributing to the development of diabetes and associated complications. Accordingly, we also contend that if better understood, altered endothelial paracellular permeability could be considered as a potential therapeutic target for diabetes.Diabetes & metabolism journal 04/2014; 38(2):92-99. DOI:10.4093/dmj.2014.38.2.92