A systematic review of economic evaluations of cardiac rehabilitation.

Academic Programmes Division, Singapore Institute of Technology, 25 North Bridge Road, Singapore, Singapore. .
BMC Health Services Research (Impact Factor: 1.66). 08/2012; 12:243. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-243
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a multidisciplinary program consisting of exercise, risk factor modification and psychosocial intervention, forms an integral part of managing patients after myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions, as well as patients with heart failure (HF). This systematic review seeks to examine the cost-effectiveness of CR for patients with MI or HF and inform policy makers in Singapore on published cost-effectiveness studies on CR.
Electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, NHS EED, PEDro, CINAHL) were searched from inception to May 2010 for published economic studies. Additional references were identified through searching bibliographies of included studies. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quality assessment of economic evaluations was undertaken using Drummond's checklist.
A total of 22 articles were selected for review. However five articles were further excluded because they were cost-minimization analyses, whilst one included patients with stroke. Of the final 16 articles, one article addressed both centre-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation, as well as home-based cardiac rehabilitation versus no rehabilitation. Therefore, nine studies compared cost-effectiveness between centre-based supervised CR and no CR; three studies examined that between centre- and home based CR; one between inpatient and outpatient CR; and four between home-based CR and no CR. These studies were characterized by differences in the study perspectives, economic study designs and time frames, as well as variability in clinical data and assumptions made on costs. Overall, the studies suggested that: (1) supervised centre-based CR was highly cost-effective and the dominant strategy when compared to no CR; (2) home-based CR was no different from centre-based CR; (3) no difference existed between inpatient and outpatient CR; and (4) home-based programs were generally cost-saving compared to no CR.
Overall, all the studies supported the implementation of CR for MI and HF. However, comparison across studies highlighted wide variability of CR program design and delivery. Policy makers need to exercise caution when generalizing these findings to the Singapore context.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 09/2014; DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001230 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reduced exercise capacity negatively affects the ability of patients with heart failure (HF) to perform activities required for daily life, further decreasing their independence and quality of life (QoL). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can effectively improve aerobic fitness and overall health status in patients with HF. Low referral rate is an important limitation that may impede successful CR, whereas the automatic referral and liaison strategies performed by some healthcare providers manifestly increase the CR referral rate. However, there is still controversy regarding the most effective exercise strategy for improving hemodynamic efficiency during daily activities in the HF population. Aerobic interval training (AIT), that includes alternating high- and low-intensity exercise sessions, may be a more effective modality for improving functional capacity than traditional moderate continuous training (MCT) in patients with HF. A novel AIT regimen designed in our previous study may substantially enhance the ability of ventilation-perfusion matching during exercise, which effects are accompanied by an improved global and disease-specific QoL in HF patients. Conversely, the traditional MCT regimen may only maintain these physiologic responses to exercise at pre-interventional status. By elucidating the relationship between physical activity and hemodynamic property, this review attempts to provide a CR strategy for developing suitable exercise prescription that ameliorates hemodynamic disturbance, further retarding the disease progression and improving health-related QoL in patients with HF.
    Acta Cardiologica Sinica 09/2014; 30(5):353-359. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article provides a description of the status of cardiovascular (CV) rehabilitation (CVR) in Latin America (LA) and the potential impact on CV disease in the region. We discuss the insufficient number of CVR programs in the region and describe the components of CVR that are more commonly available, like exercise interventions, medical assessment and patient education. Additionally, we discuss the heterogeneity in other components, like the evaluation of depression, sleep apnea, and smoking cessation programs. Lastly, we provide a brief review on the main characteristics of the health systems of each country regarding access to CVR programs and compare the average cost of CV procedures and treatments with CVR.
    Progress in cardiovascular diseases 09/2014; 57(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pcad.2014.09.006 · 4.25 Impact Factor


Available from