[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. The genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental strains with identical or closely-related porA sequences was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The first outbreak involved 1,644 C. jejuni infections at 11 state correctional facilities, and was associated with consumption of pasteurized milk supplied by an on-site dairy (Dairy A) at a prison in the central valley. The second outbreak involved eight confirmed and three suspect C. jejuni cases linked to consumption of commercial raw milk and raw chocolate colostrum at another central valley dairy (Dairy B). Both dairies bottled fluid milk on the farm and distributed finished product to off-site locations. Altogether, C. jejuni was isolated from 7 of 15 (46.7%) bovine fecal, 19 of 20 (95%) flush alley water, and 20 of 20 (100%) lagoon samples collected on Dairy A. At Dairy B, C. jejuni was cultured from 9 of 26 (34.6%) bovine fecal samples. Environmental strains indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak strains were found in five flush alley water (Dairy A) and four bovine fecal samples (Dairy B). The findings demonstrate that MOMP typing is a useful tool to triage environmental isolates prior to conducting more labor intensive molecular typing methods.
Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2012; DOI:10.1128/JCM.01845-12 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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Phytoestrogens are natural endocrine disruptors that interfere with estrogenic pathways. They insert directly within the hormone-binding domain of ERα and β, with a preference for the β isoform of which the concentration predominates in the normal mammary epithelium. Since ERβ antagonizes the growth promoting effect of ERα, which is mainly expressed in estrogen-sensitive tumor cells, a potential protective action against breast cancer incidence has been ascribed to phytoestrogens. The fact that asian women living in far-east countries who consume isoflavone-rich food are less subjected to breast cancer emergence than their congeners in the USA as well as caucasian women has been advocated to justify such a concept. Overview of data concerning the mechanism of action phytoestrogens reveal that such a view is an oversimplification: compounds interfere with a huge panel of regulatory proteins, giving rise to both promoting and antagonizing carcinogenic effects. Moreover, various physiological and pathological factors able to amplify these effects are not often sufficiently taken into account, which increases the difficulty to interpret data. Nevertheless, it established that chemical structures and concentrations modulate such effects: at the micromolar level, isoflavones activate ERα-mediated transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation while flavones fail to induce any significant promoting effects. At higher doses, both classes of compounds may display an antitumor activity. Reasons for such distinct behaviors as well as their potential impact in therapeutic applications are analyzed here. Ability of isoflavones and flavones to antagonize the association of calmodulin to ERα, which is required for its enhanced transcriptional activity is evoked to justify the antitumor activity ascribed to some flavones. Finally, a suspicion that peculiar classes of phytoestrogens may adopt a SERM-like conformation is addressed in a context of selection and synthesis of compounds with non equivocal therapeutic value.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.12.010 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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