Generation of Isogenic D4Z4 Contracted and Noncontracted Immortal Muscle Cell Clones from a Mosaic Patient: A Cellular Model for FSHD.

Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 08/2012; 181(4):1387-401. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.07.007
Source: PubMed


In most cases facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in the 4q subtelomere. This contraction is associated with local chromatin decondensation and derepression of the DUX4 retrogene. Its complex genetic and epigenetic cause and high clinical variability in disease severity complicate investigations on the pathogenic mechanism underlying FSHD. A validated cellular model bypassing the considerable heterogeneity would facilitate mechanistic and therapeutic studies of FSHD. Taking advantage of the high incidence of somatic mosaicism for D4Z4 repeat contraction in de novo FSHD, we have established a clonal myogenic cell model from a mosaic patient. Individual clones are genetically identical except for the size of the D4Z4 repeat array, being either normal or FSHD sized. These clones retain their myogenic characteristics, and D4Z4 contracted clones differ from the noncontracted clones by the bursts of expression of DUX4 in sporadic nuclei, showing that this burst-like phenomenon is a locus-intrinsic feature. Consequently, downstream effects of DUX4 expression can be observed in D4Z4 contracted clones, like differential expression of DUX4 target genes. We also show their participation to in vivo regeneration with immunodeficient mice, further expanding the potential of these clones for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. These cell lines will facilitate pairwise comparisons to identify FSHD-specific differences and are expected to create new opportunities for high-throughput drug screens.

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Available from: Gillian Butler-Browne,
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    • "CCNA1 is downstream to both DUX4-fl and DUX4-s and its expression is obviously 3-fold or even more increased in FSHD patients vs. healthy controls [27]. Recently, it has been reported that cyclin A1 is also up-regulated at RNA level in human immortalized contracted FSHD vs. non-contracted cells [29]. Therefore, our data confirm these findings. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin A1 regulates cell cycle activity and proliferation in somatic and germ-line cells. Its expression increases in G1/S phase and reaches a maximum in G2 and M phases. Altered cyclin A1 expression might contribute to clinical symptoms in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Muscle biopsies were taken from the Vastus lateralis muscle for cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses to assess RNA and protein expression of cyclin A1 in human muscle cell lines and muscle tissue. Muscle fibers diameter was calculated on cryosections to test for hypertrophy. cDNA microarray data showed specifically elevated cyclin A1 levels in FSHD vs. other muscular disorders such as caveolinopathy, dysferlinopathy, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 deficiency and healthy controls. Data could be confirmed with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showing up-regulated cyclin A1 levels also at protein level. We found also clear signs of hypertrophy within the Vastus lateralis muscle in FSHD-1 patients. In most somatic human cell lines, cyclin A1 levels are low. Overexpression of cyclin A1 in FSHD indicates cell cycle dysregulation in FSHD and might contribute to clinical symptoms of this disease.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73573. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073573 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Since myogenesis factors and genes regulating cell cycle have previously been reported to be affected in primary FSHD myoblasts [19], [21], [26], we first looked up the expression changes of two major myogenic factors, MYOD and MYOG, in the profiling data. The results showed that MYOD (Figure 1A) and MYOG (Figure 1B) were 2 fold up-regulated in the RD cells (p<0.05) but not in the C2C12 cells ectopically expressing DUX4. "
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    ABSTRACT: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to the deletion of the D4Z4 arrays at chromosome 4q35. Recent studies suggested that aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4) from the last D4Z4 repeat causes FSHD. The aim of this study is to determine transcriptomic responses to ectopically expressed DUX4 in human and mouse cells of muscle lineage. We expression profiled human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and mouse C2C12 cells transfected with expression vectors of DUX4 using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays and Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays, respectively. A total of 2267 and 150 transcripts were identified to be differentially expressed in the RD and C2C12 cells, respectively. Amongst the transcripts differentially expressed in the RD cells, MYOD and MYOG (2 fold, p<0.05), and six MYOD downstream targets were up-regulated in RD but not C2C12 cells. Furthermore, 13 transcripts involved in germline function were dramatically induced only in the RD cells expressing DUX4. The top 3 IPA canonical pathways affected by DUX4 were different between the RD (inflammation, BMP signaling and NRF-2 mediated oxidative stress) and the C2C12 cells (p53 signaling, cell cycle regulation and cellular energy metabolism). Amongst the 40 transcripts shared by the RD and C2C12 cells, UTS2 was significantly induced by 76 fold and 224 fold in the RD and C2C12 cells, respectively. The differential expression of MYOD, MYOG and UTS2 were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We further validated the differentially expressed genes in immortalized FSHD myoblasts and showed up-regulation of MYOD, MYOG, ZSCAN4 and UTS2. The results suggest that DUX4 regulates overlapped and distinct groups of genes and pathways in human and mouse cells as evident by the selective up-regulation of genes involved in myogenesis and gametogenesis in human RD and immortalized cells as well as the different molecular pathways identified in the cells.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64691. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064691 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Overexpression of MYOD has been shown to convert 10T1/2 fibroblasts and other type of cell lines into myoblasts [94,95]. While MYOD is critical in activation of myogenesis, early up-regulation of myogenin, a downstream regulatory target of MYOD, can lead to premature myoblast differentiation, as seen in early myotube formation by FSHD myoblasts [96]. Expression profiling studies have supported this defect in FSHD myoblasts by showing up-regulation of MYOD, myogenin and other MYOD regulated genes in the proliferating cells [29,31,96]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder, which is linked to the contraction of the D4Z4 array at chromosome 4q35. Recent studies suggest that this shortening of the D4Z4 array leads to aberrant expression of double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4) and causes FSHD. In addition, misregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been reported in muscular dystrophies including FSHD. In this study, we identified a miRNA that is differentially expressed in FSHD myoblasts and investigated its function. Methods To identify misregulated miRNAs and their potential targets in FSHD myoblasts, we performed expression profiling of both miRNA and mRNA using TaqMan Human MicroRNA Arrays and Affymetrix Human Genome U133A plus 2.0 microarrays, respectively. In addition, we over-expressed miR-411 in C2C12 cells to determine the effect of miR-411 on myogenic markers. Results Using miRNA and mRNA expression profiling, we identified 8 miRNAs and 1,502 transcripts that were differentially expressed in FSHD myoblasts during cell proliferation. One of the 8 differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-411, was validated by quantitative RT-PCR in both primary (2.1 fold, p<0.01) and immortalized (2.7 fold, p<0.01) myoblasts. In situ hybridization showed cytoplasmic localization of miR-411 in FSHD myoblasts. By analyzing both miRNA and mRNA data using Partek Genomics Suite, we identified 4 mRNAs potentially regulated by miR-411 including YY1 associated factor 2 (YAF2). The down-regulation of YAF2 in immortalized myoblasts was validated by immunoblotting (−3.7 fold, p<0.01). C2C12 cells were transfected with miR-411 to determine whether miR-411 affects YAF2 expression in myoblasts. The results showed that over-expression of miR-411 reduced YAF2 mRNA expression. In addition, expression of myogenic markers including Myod, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain 1 (Myh1) were suppressed by miR-411. Conclusions The study demonstrated that miR-411 was differentially expressed in FSHD myoblasts and may play a role in regulating myogenesis.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 04/2013; 8(1):55. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-8-55 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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