Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthy young adults in a country with high tuberculosis burden and BCG vaccination at birth

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. .
BMC Research Notes 08/2012; 5:415. DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-415
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT One third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-γ release assays including QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in Ethiopia, a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth.
Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods.
The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7% (95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST≥10 mm), 43.9% (95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9% (95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST ≥10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa = 0.83, p value = 0.000).
The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis and helminths (Kariminia et al. (2009), Walson et al. (2010)). Pregnancy and Helminth infection are known to suppress the TH1 response (Kariminia et al. (2009), Elias et al. (2006)) on which the QuantiFERON Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) assay, that measures the released IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with mycobacterial antigens, relies on (Thomas et al. (2010)). Objective. To determine whether QFT-GIT indeterminate result is significantly associated with helminth infection or not. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, eighty-five pregnant mothers were screened for parasitic and LTBI using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT test-respectively, Result. The prevalence of helminth infection in pregnant mothers was 23 (27%) of this 17 (20%) was due to Schistosoma mansoni. Among the total of 85 study participants 26.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 14 (17%) had indeterminate results. Three samples (21.4%) were randomly selected from the indeterminate QFT-GIT results and retested to check the reproducibility of the assay and remained indeterminate. QFT-GIT indeterminate result showed significant association with helminth infection. Conclusion. Helminth infections were significantly associated with indeterminate QFT-GIT results in pregnant mothers. Therefore further study is important to evaluate the possible effect of helminth infection by excluding the effect of pregnancy, as pregnancy also downregulates cellular immunity.
    02/2014; 2014:364137. DOI:10.1155/2014/364137
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    ABSTRACT: M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB infections using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT tests, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot on Cord blood Mononuclear Cells, and total IgE and TB specific IgG ELISA on cord blood plasma was performed to investigate the possible effect of maternal helminth and/or latent TB co-infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. The prevalence of helminth infections in pregnant women was 27% (n = 23), with Schistosoma mansoni the most common helminth species observed (20% of women were infected). Among the total of 85 study participants 25.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 17% had an indeterminate result. The mean total IgE value of cord blood was significantly higher in helminth positive than negative women (0.76 vs 0.47, p = 0.042). Cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG was significantly higher in helminth positive (21.9±7.9) than negative (12.3±5.1), p = 0.002) Latent TB Infection positive participants. The IFN-γ response of CBMCs to ESAT-6/CFP-10 cocktail (50 vs 116, p = 0.018) and PPD (58 vs 123, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in helminth positive than negative participants. There was no significant difference in IL-4 response of CBMCs between helminth negative and positive participants. Maternal helminth infection had a significant association with the IFN-γ response of CBMCs, total IgE and cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the effect of these factors on neonatal immune response to BCG vaccination.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93429. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093429 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) present a high variability in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Data on patients with latent TB infection (LTBI) and children in high prevalence settings are still limited. The present study aimed to evaluate an in-house strip test for detection of anti-M. tuberculosis antibodies in TB patients, mostly children aged under 15 y, grouped into four diagnostic categories: active TB, LTBI, healthy TB contacts, and other non-TB diseases. The diagnostic performance of strip test was compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Sensitivity and specificity were assessed for all three diagnostic tests. The detection accuracy among the tests was calculated by using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. TST and IGRA could diagnose the active TB cases correctly (100%). The sensitivity of strip test for active TB was 58.3% and 37.5% for LTBI, while the sensitivities of TST and IGRA for LTBI were 90.3% and 37.5%, respectively. The overall specificities of strip test and IGRA were 91.5% and 95.7%, respectively, which were superior to that of TST (68.1%). The strip test did not appear to be useful for diagnosis of active TB in comparison with the current diagnostic standard. The assay may be particularly significant in situations where TB is clinically difficult to diagnose like LTBI and could be a meaningful tool in terms of high specificity and simplicity for ruling in pediatric TB in countries with high TB infection rate. Further studies are needed to determine whether strip test can be improved in its sensitivity and should be implemented into routine clinical practice.

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Jun 4, 2014

Alemnew F. Dagnew