Characterization of a New Cold-adapted Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. TK-3.
ABSTRACT A psychrotrophic Pseudomonas sp. TK-3 was isolated from dirty and cool stream water in Toyama, Japan from which we cloned and characterized the bacterial lipase LipTK-3. The sequenced DNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 1,428 bp that encoded a protein of 476 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 50,132 Da. The lipase showed high sequence similarity to those of subfamily Ι.3 lipase and had a conserved GXSXG motif around the catalytic Ser residue. Its optimal temperature was 20-25 °C, lower than in most other subfamily Ι.3 lipases. The lipase exhibited about 30 % of maximal activity at 5 °C. The optimal pH value was 8.0. The activity was strongly inhibited by EDTA and was highly dependent on Ca(2+). Tricaprylin and p-nitrophenyl caprylate were the most favorable substrates among the triglycerides and p-nitrophenyl esters, respectively. LipTK-3 also showed high activity towards natural substrates including edible vegetable oils and animal fats. Furthermore, LipTK-3 was very active and stable in the presence of several detergents, metal ions, and organic solvents. This cold-adapted lipase may prove useful for future applications.
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ABSTRACT: A lipolytic bacterium, strain no. 6, was isolated from Siberian tundra soil. It was a gram-negative coccoid rod capable of growing at 4°C but not at 37°C and was identified as a psychrotrophic strain of the genus Acinetobacter. Strain no. 6 extracellularly produced a lipolytic enzyme that efficiently hydrolyzed triglycerides such as soybean oil during bacterial growth even at 4°C; it degraded 60% of added soybean oil (initial concentration, 1% w/v) after cultivation in LB medium at 4°C for 7 d. Thus, the bacterium is potentially applicable to in-situ bioremediation or bioaugumentation of fat-contaminated cold environments. We partially purified the lipolytic enzyme from the culture filtrate by acetone fractionation and characterized it. The enzyme preparation contained a single species of cold-active lipase with significant activity at 4°C, which was 57% of the activity at the optimum temperature (20°C). The enzyme showed a broad specificity toward the acyl group (C8—C16) of substrate ethyl esters.Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/2001; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding a lipase from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 (PML) revealed that PML is a member of the lipase family I.3 and is composed of 617 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 64510. Recombinant PML (rPML) was overproduced in Escherichia coli in an insoluble form, solubilized in the presence of 8 M urea, purified in a urea-denatured form and refolded by removing urea in the presence of the Ca(2+) ion. Gel filtration chromatography suggests that this refolded protein is monomeric. rPML showed relatively broad substrate specificities and hydrolyzed glyceryl tributyrate and olive oil with comparable efficiencies. rPML was active only in the form of a holo-enzyme, in which at least 12 Ca(2+) ions bound. These Ca(2+) ions bound too tightly to be removed from the protein upon dialysis, but were removed from it upon EDTA treatment. The resultant apo-enzyme was fully active in the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2), but was inactive in the absence of the Ca(2+) ion. PML has a GXSXG motif, which is conserved in lipases/esterases and generally contains the active-site serine. The mutation of Ser(207) within this motif to Ala completely inactivated PML, suggesting that Ser(207) is the active-site serine of PML.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2000; 1478(2):201-10. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Bacterial lipases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase reaction do not follow the classical Michaelis-Menten model. With only a few exceptions, bacterial lipases are able to completely hydrolyze a triacylglycerol substrate although a certain preference for primary ester bonds has been observed. Numerous lipase assay methods are available using coloured or fluorescent substrates which allow spectroscopic and fluorimetric detection of lipase activity. Another important assay is based on titration of fatty acids released from the substrate. Newly developed methods allow to exactly determine lipase activity via controlled surface pressure or by means of a computer-controlled oil drop tensiometer. The synthesis and secretion of lipases by bacteria is influenced by a variety of environmental factors like ions, carbon sources, or presence of non-metabolizable polysaccharides. The secretion pathway is known for Pseudomonas lipases with P. aeruginosa lipase using a two-step mechanism and P. fluorescens lipase using a one-step mechanism. Additionally, some Pseudomonas lipases need specific chaperone-like proteins assisting their correct folding in the periplasm. These lipase-specific foldases (Lif-proteins) which show a high degree of amino acid sequence homology among different Pseudomonas species are coded for by genes located immediately downstream the lipase structural genes. A comparison of different bacterial lipases on the basis of primary structure revealed only very limited sequence homology. However, determination of the three-dimensional structure of the P. glumae lipase indicated that at least some of the bacterial lipases will presumably reveal a conserved folding pattern called the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold, which has been described for other microbial and human lipases. The catalytic site of lipases is buried inside the protein and contains a serine-protease-like catalytic triad consisting of the amino acids serine, histidine, and aspartate (or glutamate). The Ser-residue is located in a strictly conserved beta-epsilon Ser-alpha motif. The active site is covered by a lid-like alpha-helical structure which moves away upon contact of the lipase with its substrate, thereby exposing hydrophobic residues at the protein's surface mediating the contact between protein and substrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)FEMS Microbiology Reviews 10/1994; 15(1):29-63. · 13.23 Impact Factor