Adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 2.32). 06/2012; 26(6):541-7, 550, 552 passim.
Source: PubMed


Endocrine therapy is a critical part of adjuvant therapy in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. For decades, 5 years of tamoxifen has been the standard treatment. For premenopausal women, it remains so, and we await the results of ongoing trials to define the role of ovarian suppression or ablation with endocrine therapy. If a woman becomes postmenopausal during treatment, consideration should be given to extended adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) for another 5 years. In postmenopausal women, trials have shown that AIs are more beneficial than tamoxifen in preventing disease recurrence.They have been compared as upfront treatment for 5 years, as sequential therapy after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen, and as extended treatment for 5 years after 5 years of tamoxifen. Among the questions still being studied are the optimal duration of extended adjuvant therapy with AIs, how one AI performs compared to another, and whether there is a benefit to intermittent extended adjuvant treatment.

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    • "Adjuvant hormonal therapy is an effective treatment to reduce or prevent the recurrence of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (Bando, 2013; Bell et al., 2013; Higgins et al., 2012; Rao and Cobleigh, 2012; Yoshinami et al., 2013). Here, two common groups of pharmaceuticals are used for clinical hormonal therapy; Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting the estrogen pathway has been proven effective in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. There are currently two common groups of anti-estrogenic compounds used in the clinic; Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen) and Selective Estrogen Enzyme Modulators (SEEMs e.g. letrozole). Among various naturally occurring, biologically active compounds, resveratrol and melatonin have been suggested to act as aromatase inhibitors, which makes them potential candidates in hormonal treatment of breast cancer. Here we used a co-culture model in which we previously demonstrated that primary human breast adipose fibroblasts (BAFs) can convert testosterone to estradiol, which subsequently results in estrogen receptor-mediated breast cancer T47D cell proliferation. In the presence of testosterone in this model, we examined the effect of letrozole, resveratrol and melatonin on cell proliferation, estradiol (E2) production and gene expression of CYP19A1, pS2 and Ki-67. Both melatonin and resveratrol were found to be aromatase inhibitors in this co-culture system, albeit at different concentrations. Our co-culture model did not provide any indications that melatonin is also a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In the T47D-BAF co-culture, a melatonin concentration of 20 nM and resveratrol concentration of 20 μM have an aromatase inhibitory effect as potent as 20 nM letrozole, which is a clinically used anti-aromatase drug in breast cancer treatment. The SEEM mechanism of action of especially melatonin clearly offers potential advantages for breast cancer treatment.
    Toxicology in Vitro 06/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2014.05.015 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Aromatase inhibitors are used predominantly in post-menopausal women. Many studies have shown that the application of aromatase inhibitors is superior to that of tamoxifen [5], [6], [7], [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates.
    German medical science : GMS e-journal 01/2014; 12(1):Doc03. DOI:10.3205/000188
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    • "Receipt of proper adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients is very important and associated with prognosis of breast cancer patients. Both clinical trials and consensus guidelines have identified subsets of women with breast cancer who are able to gain benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy [4,13-15]. Many factors, including age, comorbidities, marital status, variation in provider recommendation, medical insurance, and life expectancy, are associated with whether women receive adjuvant chemotherapy and have been reported for a long time [12,16-20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvant chemotherapies are recommended for most women after breast cancer surgery, and can greatly affect the patients' survival. We describe and evaluate possible factors influencing receipt of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy among breast cancer patients in China. A total of 1,431 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1997 to 2005 were enrolled. We reviewed medical records and abstracted information about these patients. Details on social-demographic factors and clinical-pathological characteristics of participants were collected and analyzed. To meet our objectives, the patient's age at diagnosis, comorbidities, menstrual status, rural/urban status, tumor size, lymph node status, distant metastasis, tumor stage and hormone receptor status were estimated. Overall, 936 of these 1,431 patients (65.41%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Receipt of chemotherapy was significantly associated with age at diagnosis, rural--urban disparities, and lymph node status of patients, though no significant difference was found between the age <50 and age 50 to 64 groups. Moderate association was also observed between hormone receptor status and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy, though it was still not statistically significant. Our study suggests that age at diagnosis, rural--urban disparities and lymph node status of breast cancer patients are independent predictors for receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy among married Chinese women. Further investigations are warranted, and related public health education needs to be expanded in China.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2013; 11(1):286. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-286 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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