Use of computed tomography findings and contrast extravasation in predicting the need for embolization with pelvic fractures
ABSTRACT Transarterial embolization (AE) can be a lifesaving procedure for severe hemorrhage associated with pelvic fractures. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic and radiographic findings that predict the need for embolization. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with at least one pelvic fracture and admission to the intensive care unit over a 35-month period. Computed tomography (CT) and pelvic radiographs were reviewed. Patient demographics, outcomes, time to angiography, and whether or not embolization was performed were determined. Statistical analysis was used to determine factors associated with the need for AE. Of the 327 total patients with pelvic fractures, 317 underwent CT scanning. Forty-four patients (13.5%) underwent angiography and 25 (7.6%) required therapeutic embolization. There were 39 total deaths (11.6%) with five deaths related to pelvic hemorrhage (1.5%). Multivariate analysis revealed that age older than 55 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg in the emergency department (OR, 11.64; P = 0.0008), and CT extravasation (OR, 147.152; P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with the need for embolization. Contrast extravasation was not present in 25 per cent of patients requiring therapeutic AE. The presence of contrast extravasation is highly associated with the need for pelvic embolization in patients with pelvic fractures, but its absence does not exclude the need for pelvic angiography.
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- "However, most of these parameters were determined in selected patients with an isolated pelvic fracture. Contrast media extravasation on pelvic CT scan has also been identified as a strong predictor for embolization  . However, the utility of the CT scan as a screening instrument has been questioned since the general consensus is that haemodynamically unstable patients be not considered for CT scanning and stable patients with a pelvic arterial blush on CT probably would not benefit from angiography . "
ABSTRACT: The early diagnosis of pelvic arterial haemorrhage is challenging for initiating treatment by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in multiple trauma patients. We use an institutional algorithm focusing on haemodynamic status on admission and on a whole-body CT scan in stabilized patients to screen patients requiring TAE. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this approach. This retrospective cohort study included 106 multiple trauma patients admitted to the emergency room with serious pelvic fracture [pelvic abbreviated injury scale (AIS) score of 3 or more]. Of the 106 patients, 27 (25%) underwent pelvic angiography leading to TAE for active arterial haemorrhage in 24. The TAE procedure was successful within 3h of arrival in 18 patients. In accordance with the algorithm, 10 patients were directly admitted to the angiography unit (n=8) and/or operating room (n=2) for uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock on admission. Of the remaining 96 stabilized patients, 20 had contrast media extravasation on pelvic CT scan that prompted pelvic angiography in 16 patients leading to TAE in 14. One patient underwent a pelvic angiography despite showing no contrast media extravasation on pelvic CT scan. All 17 stabilized patients who underwent pelvic angiography presented a more severely compromised haemodynamic status on admission, and they required more blood products during their initial management than the 79 patients who did not undergo pelvic angiography. The incidence of unstable pelvic fractures was however comparable between the two groups. Overall, haemodynamic instability and contrast media extravasation on the CT-scan identified 26 out of the 27 patients who required subsequent pelvic angiography leading to TAE in 24. An algorithm focusing on haemodynamic status on arrival and on the whole-body CT scan in stabilized patients may be effective at triaging multiple trauma patients with serious pelvic fractures.Injury 07/2013; 45(1). DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2013.06.011 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The management of a patient in post-traumatic haemorrhagic shock will meet different logics that will apply from the prehospital setting. This implies that the patient has beneficiated from a "Play and Run" prehospital strategy and was sent to a centre adapted to his clinical condition capable of treating all haemorrhagic lesions. The therapeutic goals will be to control the bleeding by early use of tourniquet, pelvic girdle, haemostatic dressing, and after admission to the hospital, the implementation of surgical and/or radiological techniques, but also to address all the factors that will exacerbate bleeding. These factors include hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy. The treatment of these contributing factors will be associated to concepts of low-volume resuscitation and permissive hypotension into a strategy called "Damage Control Resuscitation". Thus, the objective in situation of haemorrhagic shock will be to not exceed a systolic blood pressure of 90mmHg (in the absence of severe head trauma) until haemostasis is achieved.Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.annfar.2013.07.008 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A pelvic x-ray (PXR) can be used as an effective screening tool to evaluate pelvic fractures and stability. However, associated intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal organ injuries and hemorrhage should also be considered and evaluated in patients with major torso injuries. An abdominal/pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scan may provide higher resolution and more information than a PXR. The role of conventional PXRs was delineated in the current study in the context of the development of the CT scan. We retrospectively reviewed patients with major torso injuries in our institution. The characteristics of the patients who received different diagnostic modalities (PXR only, CT scan only, or both) were investigated and compared. The characteristics of patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the hemostasis of pelvic fracture-related retroperitoneal hemorrhage were also analyzed. There were 726 patients enrolled in current stud. Only 72.0% (523/726) of the patients who had major torso injuries were examined using PXRs, and 69.6% (505/726) of the patients underwent an abdominal/pelvic CT scan. For the patients who were examined using PXRs, there was no significant difference in the usage rate of an additional CT scan between the patients with positive (52.7%, 108/205) and negative (61.0%, 194/318) PXR examinations (P = .070). Four patients underwent TAE immediately following PXR examinations only, without a CT scan. These four patients had unstable pelvic fractures on the PXR examination and significantly a lower systolic blood pressure (61.0 ± 13.0 mmHg), a lower revised trauma score (3.560 ± 2.427), a greater requirement for blood transfusions (1750 ± 957.2 ml) than the patients who underwent TAE after a CT scan. For the management of patients with major torso injuries, the role of PXR is diminishing due to the development of the CT scan. However, the PXR is still valuable for patients who are in critical condition and have an obviously high probability of retroperitoneal hemorrhaging.The American journal of emergency medicine 10/2013; 32(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2013.09.011 · 1.15 Impact Factor