A review of analytical strategies for the detection of endogenous' steroid abuse in food production
ABSTRACT Detection of the abuse of synthetic steroids in food production is nowadays relatively straightforward using modern techniques such as gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS, respectively). However, proving the abuse of 'endogenous' (or naturally occurring) steroids is more difficult. Despite these difficulties, significant progress in this area has recently been made and a number of methods are now available. The aim of the current review was to systematically review the available analytical approaches, which include threshold concentrations, qualitative 'marker' metabolites, intact steroid esters, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), longitudinal testing and 'omics' biomarker profiling. The advantages/disadvantages of these methods are considered in detail, but the choice of which to adopt is dictated by a number of practical, political, and economic factors, which vary in different parts of the world. These include the steroid/species combination requiring analysis, the matrix tested, whether samples are collected from live or slaughtered animals, available analytical instrumentation, sample throughput/cost, and the relevant legal/regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, these approaches could be combined in a range of different parallel and/or sequential screening/confirmatory testing streams, with the final choice being determined by the aforementioned considerations. Despite these advances, more work is required to refine the different techniques and to respond to the ever increasing list of compounds classified as 'endogenous'. At this advanced stage, however, it is now more important than ever for scientists and regulators from across the world to communicate and collaborate in order to harmonize and streamline research efforts.
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ABSTRACT: Recent developments in ambient mass spectrometry (AMS), such as atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) mass spectrometry, open a whole new range of possibilities to screen for drug preparations. In this study, the potential of ASAP for the rapid identification and quantification of anabolic steroid esters has been evaluated. These compounds are known to be used both in human and in food producing animals to enhance performances and to improve rate of growth, respectively. Using a triple quadrupole (QqQ) MS instrument, mechanism of ionization and fragmentation in both positive and negative mode were studied for a range of 21 selected steroid esters (based on testosterone, estradiol, nandrolone and boldenone) which highlighted common neutral mass loss of 96.1 allowing thus rapid screening in seconds to reveal steroid ester presence without any sample preparation. Ester identification is further achieved through an efficient 2 minutes workflow on QqQ MS instrument. Moreover, the use of isotope labeled internal standards permitted the quantification of the corresponding steroid esters in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, for the first time in ASAP. This approach was successfully applied for characterization of oily commercial preparations. These results open new perspectives in hormone (and drug) rapid analysis by ASAP-MS in the near future.Analytical Chemistry 05/2014; 86(12). DOI:10.1021/ac501072g · 5.83 Impact Factor
Mass Spectrometry Reviews 05/2013; 32(3):244-5. DOI:10.1002/mas.21380 · 8.05 Impact Factor