Antiplatelet Therapy in Children: Why So Different from Adults'?
Department of Cardiovascular and Neurological Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy.Current pharmaceutical design (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2012; 18(21):3019-33. DOI: 10.2174/1381612811209023019
Antiplatelet agents are administered in the treatment of a large number of adult diseases: coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, arrhythmias with their thromboembolic complications, primary and secondary prevention. In childhood however, the situation is substantially different. The lack of large interventional trials on the use of antiplatelet drugs in children, has led to greater uncertainty, and a less extensive use of these drugs, limited to fewer indications. The purpose of this article was to review the studies conducted to date on the use of antiplatelet agents in children. A concerted effort has been made to identify which are the shared therapeutic indications of this class of compounds, the recommended dose, the contraindications and the possible side effects. In brief, an attempt has been made to ascertain the interesting potential of these drugs which are so often neglected in children.
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ABSTRACT: Similarly to a series of chronic diseases, essential arterial hypertension (HTN) may be manifested during childhood as a blood pressure (BP) reading which repeatedly rises above the 95th percentile of population-specific standards. Since BP tends to track along the same percentiles throughout life, children with higher BPs are more likely to become hypertensive adults. When healthy measures aimed at reducing BP (i.e. body weight reduction, aerobic physical exercise, low sodium intake) have failed, pharmacological treatment is usually required. This paper aims to undertake a review of antihypertensive pharmacological therapy in children, examining the drugs used in chronic treatment as well as those administered to treat hypertensive crisis (i.e. a BP major than 99th percentile of paediatric normograms). Moreover, several important differences registered in the therapeutic approach to paediatric HTN between US and European Guidelines will be underlined.Current Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; 21(27). DOI:10.2174/0929867321666140304093848 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large number of adults worldwide suffer from essential hypertension, and because blood pressures (BPs) tend to remain within the same percentiles throughout life, it has been postulated that hypertensive pressures can be tracked from childhood to adulthood. Thus, children with higher BPs are more likely to become hypertensive adults. These "pre-hypertensive" subjects can be identified by measuring arterial BP at a young age, and compared with age, gender and height-specific references. The majority of studies report that 1 to 5% of children and adolescents are hypertensive, defined as a BP > 95(th) percentile, with higher prevalence rates reported for some isolated geographic areas. However, the actual prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents remains to be fully elucidated. In addition to these young "pre-hypertensive" subjects, there are also children and adolescents with a normal-high BP (90(th)-95(th) percentile). Early intervention may help prevent the development of essential hypertension as they age. An initial attempt should be made to lower their BP by non-pharmacologic measures, such as weight reduction, aerobic physical exercise, and lowered sodium intake. A pharmacological treatment is usually needed should these measures fail to lower BP. The majority of antihypertensive drugs are not formulated for pediatric patients, and have thus not been investigated in great detail. The purpose of this review is to provide an update concerning juvenile hypertension, and highlight recent developments in epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and relevant therapies.World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 05/2014; 6(5):253-259. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v6.i5.253 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a highly atherogenic and heterogeneous lipoprotein that is inherited in an autosomal codominant trait. A unique aspect of this lipoprotein is that it is fully expressed by the first or second year of life in children, a pattern that is distinctly different from other lipoproteins, which typically only reach adult levels after adolescence. Despite decades of research, Lp(a) metabolism is still poorly understood but what is abundantly clear is that it is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents does not recommend measuring Lp(a) levels as part of routine screening except in youth with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or youth with a parental history of ASCVD not explained by classical risk factors. One of the reasons that both the pediatric and adult guidelines fail to include this lipoprotein as part of routine lipid screening is the absence of data to show that lowering Lp(a) will reduce current or future ASCVD risk independently of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The cholesterol carried by Lp(a) is included in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measurement, but a separate test is used to measure the lipoprotein mass and/or cholesterol carried only by Lp(a). Because levels seem to be largely under genetic control, studies of lifestyle modification have been inconclusive although one study in obese children showed a decrease in the Lp(a) level comparable with the favorable effect on other lipids. The most compelling data regarding the importance of Lp(a) in the pediatric population are the increased risk associated with arterial ischemic stroke, a risk that is comparable with that associated with antiphospholipid antibodies or protein C deficiency. Although no specific pharmaceutical treatments are recommended to lower Lp(a) levels in youth, it is vitally important to educate youth and their parents about the excessive risk associated with this lipoprotein and the need to avoid the acquisition of other lifestyle-related risk factors such as smoking, excess weight, and physical inactivity to preserve more ideal cardiovascular health in adulthood.Journal of Clinical Lipidology 09/2015; 9(5S):S57-S66. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2015.07.006 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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