Primary mFOLFOX6 Plus Bevacizumab Without Resection of the Primary Tumor for Patients Presenting With Surgically Unresectable Metastatic Colon Cancer and an Intact Asymptomatic Colon Cancer: Definitive Analysis of NSABP Trial C-10
Major concerns surround combining chemotherapy with bevacizumab in patients with colon cancer presenting with an asymptomatic intact primary tumor (IPT) and synchronous yet unresectable metastatic disease. Surgical resection of asymptomatic IPT is controversial.
Patients and methods:
Eligibility for this prospective, multicenter phase II trial included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 to 1, asymptomatic IPT, and unresectable metastases. All received infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) combined with bevacizumab. The primary end point was major morbidity events, defined as surgical resection because of symptoms at or death related to the IPT. A 25% major morbidity rate was considered acceptable. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and minor morbidity related to IPT requiring hospitalization, transfusion, or nonsurgical intervention.
Ninety patients registered between March 2006 and June 2009: 86 were eligible with follow-up, median age was 58 years, and 52% were female. Median follow-up was 20.7 months. There were 12 patients (14%) with major morbidity related to IPT: 10 required surgery (eight, obstruction; one, perforation; and one, abdominal pain), and two patients died. The 24-month cumulative incidence of major morbidity was 16.3% (95% CI, 7.6% to 25.1%). Eleven IPTs were resected without a morbidity event: eight for attempted cure and three for other reasons. Two patients had minor morbidity events only: one hospitalization and one nonsurgical intervention. Median OS was 19.9 months (95% CI, 15.0 to 27.2 months).
This trial met its primary end point. Combining mFOLFOX6 with bevacizumab did not result in an unacceptable rate of obstruction, perforation, bleeding, or death related to IPT. Survival was not compromised. These patients can be spared initial noncurative resection of their asymptomatic IPT.
"Additional therapy whether surgical resection or systemic chemotherapy was considered. Recently, neoadjuvant therapy using FOLFOX (with approved biological agent) chemotherapy was recommended as a nonsurgical management of patients with no obstructing metastatic (stage IV) colorectal cancer, and demonstrated excellent result with few complications . This suggests nonsurgical chemotherapy using FOLFOX plus biological antibodies might have beneficial effect on patients with urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Urethral metastatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Moreover, only 9 previous cases with metastases from colorectal cancer have been reported to date, and not much information on urethral metastases from colorectum is available so far.
We report our experience in the diagnosis and the management of the case with urethral metastasis from a sigmoid colon cancer. A 68-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon carcinoma four years ago, presented gross hematuria with pain. Urethroscopy identified a papillo-nodular tumor 7 mm in diameter in the bulbar urethra. CT-scan imaging revealed the small mass of bulbous portion of urethra and solitary lung metastasis. Histological examination of the tumor obtained by transurethral resection showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was diagnosed as a metastasis of a sigmoid colon carcinoma pathologically by morphological examination. Immunohistochemical analysis of the urethral tumor revealed the positive for cytokertin 20 and CDX2, whereas negative for cytokertin 7. These features were consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon cancer. As the management of this case with urethral and lung metastasis, 6-cycle of chemotherapy with fluorouracil with leucovorin plus oxaliplatin was administered to the patient, and these metastases were disappeared with no recurrence of disease for 34 months.
Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is a very rare occurrence. However, in the presence of urinary symptoms, the possibility of the urethral metastasis should be considered.
BMC Surgery 05/2014; 14(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-14-31 · 1.40 Impact Factor
"Recently, the results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Trial C-10 were published . This study was a phase-2 clinical trial to investigate the safety of nonsurgical treatment when unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer patients with asymptomatic primary tumors were treated using 5-Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) chemotherapy drugs with Bevacizumab. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are still debates regarding the appropriate primary treatment policy for asymptomatic primary colorectal lesions in cases of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Even though there are patients with asymptomatic primary tumors when starting chemotherapy, those patients may still undergo surgery due to complications related to primary tumors in the middle of chemotherapy; therefore, controversy exists regarding surgical resection of primary colorectal lesions in cases where symptoms are absent when making a diagnosis. Thus, based on the published literature, we discuss opinions that prefer first-line surgery for primary tumors as well as opinions favoring first-line chemotherapy for treating unresectable synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer. Although the upfront chemotherapy including targeted agents is suggested as an effective treatment in recent years, the first line surgery has been a preferred treatment for decades. The first line surgery is beneficial to prolong the survival duration given the retrospective analysis of randomized trial data. So far, no prospective comparison study has only focused on the first-line treatment modality; thus, future clinical studies focusing on the survival duration and the quality of life should be performed as soon as possible. Furthermore, at this point, multidisciplinary team approaches would be helpful in finding the appropriate therapy. Regardless of symptoms, the performance status and the tumor burden should be taken into consideration as well. In case of surgical resection, minimally invasive surgery, such as laparoscopic surgery, is recommended.
Annals of Coloproctology 04/2013; 29(2):44-54. DOI:10.3393/ac.2013.29.2.44
"Ruo reported that 30 (29%) of the 103 patients who were initially managed without bowel resection required a subsequent operation for the palliation of complications . McCahill and Poultsides reported that only those cases with complete obstruction, perforation or massive bleeding (7 to 4%), require surgery of their primary tumor [11,12]. However, there is no report about an early start of chemotherapy after resection of primary CRC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The start of chemotherapy usually requires a delay of about 4 weeks after surgical resection of colorectal cancer. However, there is no evidence for the required length of this delay interval. In addition, there is a chance that a patient may die because postoperative chemotherapy was not started soon enough and a metastatic tumor was able to develop rapidly. We therefore conducted a pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of an early start of chemotherapy after the resection of colorectal cancer with distant metastases.
Five patients were enrolled. They received XELOX therapy (130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1 plus 1,000 mg/m2 of capecitabine twice daily on days 1 to 14) on the 7th postoperative day and XELOX + bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg of bevacizumab on day 1) after the 2nd cycle of chemotherapy.
Five patients underwent open surgery. The procedures included right hemicolectomy in 1 patient, sigmoidectomy in 2 patients, high anterior resection in 1 patient, and Hartmann procedure in 1 patient. All patients started chemotherapy on postoperative day 7. The median number of cycles of chemotherapy was 11 (8 to 22). No postoperative complications were observed. The tumor reduction rate was 44.3% (32.0 to 66.6%). Progression-free survival was 10.3 months.
An early start of chemotherapy after surgery is feasible and safe. These findings suggest possible changes in the start time of chemotherapy after surgery in the future. We have already started a new phase II trial to confirm the effects of the early start of chemotherapy after surgery.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2013; 11(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-39 · 1.41 Impact Factor
Yi Zhang, Changwei Lin, Guoqing Liao, Sheng Liu, Jie Ding, Fang Tang, Zhenran Wang, Xingsi Liang, Bo Li, Yangchao Wei, Qi Huang, Xuan Li, Bo Tang
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