Osterix Regulates Calcification and Degradation of Chondrogenic Matrices through Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) Expression in Association with Transcription Factor Runx2 during Endochondral Ossification.
ABSTRACT Endochondral ossification is temporally and spatially regulated by several critical transcription factors, including Sox9, Runx2, and Runx3. Although the molecular mechanisms that control the late stages of endochondral ossification (e.g. calcification) are physiologically and pathologically important, these precise regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Osterix is an essential transcription factor for endochondral ossification that functions downstream of Runx2. The global and conditional Osterix-deficient mice studied here exhibited a defect of cartilage-matrix ossification and matrix vesicle formation. Importantly, Osterix deficiencies caused the arrest of endochondral ossification at the hypertrophic stage. Microarray analysis revealed that matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) is an important target of Osterix. We also showed that there exists a physical interaction between Osterix and Runx2 and that these proteins function cooperatively to induce MMP13 during chondrocyte differentiation. Most interestingly, the introduction of MMP13 stimulated the calcification of matrices in Osterix-deficient mouse limb bud cells. Our results demonstrated that Osterix was essential to endochondral ossification and revealed that the physical and functional interaction between Osterix and Runx2 were necessary for the induction of MMP13 during endochondral ossification.
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ABSTRACT: The Sox9 transcription factor plays an essential role in promoting chondrogenesis and regulating expression of chondrocyte extracellular-matrix genes. To identify genes that interact with Sox9 in promoting chondrocyte differentiation, we screened a cDNA library generated from the murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to identify activators of the collagen, type II, alpha 1 (Col2a1) promoter. Here we have shown that paraspeckle regulatory protein 54-kDa nuclear RNA-binding protein (p54nrb) is an essential link between Sox9-regulated transcription and maturation of Sox9-target gene mRNA. We found that p54nrb physically interacted with Sox9 and enhanced Sox9-dependent transcriptional activation of the Col2a1 promoter. In ATDC5 cells, p54nrb colocalized with Sox9 protein in nuclear paraspeckle bodies, and knockdown of p54(nrb) suppressed Sox9-dependent Col2a1 expression and promoter activity. We generated a p54nrb mutant construct lacking RNA recognition motifs, and overexpression of mutant p54nrb in ATDC5 cells markedly altered the appearance of paraspeckle bodies and inhibited the maturation of Col2a1 mRNA. The mutant p54nrb inhibited chondrocyte differentiation of mesenchymal cells and mouse metatarsal explants. Furthermore, transgenic mice expressing the mutant p54nrb in the chondrocyte lineage exhibited dwarfism associated with impairment of chondrogenesis. These data suggest that p54nrb plays an important role in the regulation of Sox9 function and the formation of paraspeckle bodies during chondrogenesis.Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2008; 118(9):3098-108. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The assembly and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are crucial processes during bone development. In this study, we show that ECM remodeling is a critical rate-limiting step in endochondral bone formation. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13 (collagenase 3) is poised to play a crucial role in bone formation and remodeling because of its expression both in terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and in osteoblasts. Moreover, a mutation in the human MMP13 gene causes the Missouri variant of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. Inactivation of Mmp13 in mice through homologous recombination led to abnormal skeletal growth plate development. Chondrocytes differentiated normally but their exit from the growth plate was delayed. The severity of the Mmp13- null growth plate phenotype increased until about 5 weeks and completely resolved by 12 weeks of age. Mmp13-null mice had increased trabecular bone, which persisted for months. Conditional inactivation of Mmp13 in chondrocytes and osteoblasts showed that increases in trabecular bone occur independently of the improper cartilage ECM degradation caused by Mmp13 deficiency in late hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identified the two major components of the cartilage ECM, collagen type II and aggrecan, as in vivo substrates for MMP13. We found that degradation of cartilage collagen and aggrecan is a coordinated process in which MMP13 works synergistically with MMP9. Mice lacking both MMP13 and MMP9 had severely impaired endochondral bone, characterized by diminished ECM remodeling, prolonged chondrocyte survival, delayed vascular recruitment and defective trabecular bone formation (resulting in drastically shortened bones). These data support the hypothesis that proper ECM remodeling is the dominant rate-limiting process for programmed cell death, angiogenesis and osteoblast recruitment during normal skeletal morphogenesis.Development 12/2004; 131(23):5883-95. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA), one of the most common skeletal disorders characterized by cartilage degradation and osteophyte formation in joints, is induced by accumulated mechanical stress; however, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Several experimental OA models in mice by producing instability in the knee joints have been developed to apply approaches from mouse genetics. Although proteinases like matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanases have now been proven to be the principal initiators of OA progression, clinical trials of proteinase inhibitors have not been successful for the treatment, turning the interest of researchers to the upstream signals of proteinase induction. These signals include undegraded and fragmented matrix proteins like type II collagen or fibronection that affects chondrocytes through distinct receptors. Another signal is pro-inflammatory factors that are produced by chondrocytes and synovial cells; however, recent studies that used mouse OA models in knockout mice did not support that these factors have a role in the central contribution to OA development. Our mouse genetic approaches found that the induction of a transcriptional activator Runx2 in chondrocytes under mechanical stress contributes to the pathogenesis of OA through chondrocyte hypertrophy. In addition, chondrocyte apoptosis has recently been identified as being involved in OA progression. We hereby propose that these endochondral ossification signals may be important for the OA progression, suggesting that the related molecules can clinically be therapeutic targets of this disease.Molecules and Cells 03/2008; 25(1):1-6. · 2.21 Impact Factor