Quantitative genetic analysis and mapping of leaf angle in durum wheat.
ABSTRACT The leaf erectness profile has been used to optimize plant architecture since erect leaves can enhance photosynthesis and dry matter production by greater sunlight capture. Brassinosteroid is a recent class of phytohormones that has been related to a more erect profile. There are no reports in the literature of the genetic variability of leaf angle in doubled haploid durum wheat populations; most studies on leaf angle have focused on the inheritance. Our aim was to study the genetic variation in flag and penultimate leaf angle in a durum wheat doubled haploid mapping population, identifying and mapping quantitative trait loci influencing leaf angle. An F(1)-derived doubled haploid population of 89 lines from the cross Strongfield/Blackbird was used to construct a genetic map using 423 molecular marker loci. Two greenhouse experiments and one field test were conducted using an alpha lattice in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The leaf angle was measured on flag and penultimate leaf with a protractor at three different growth stages. The results indicated poor to moderate correlations between the position of the leaf angle and the growth stage. Transgressive segregation beyond Strongfield and Blackbird of leaf angle was observed for all environments. Putative trait loci were identified on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4B, 5B and 7A. This work helps to understand the genetics of leaf angle in durum wheat.
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ABSTRACT: New cultivars with very erect leaves, which increase light capture for photosynthesis and nitrogen storage for grain filling, may have increased grain yields. Here we show that the erect leaf phenotype of a rice brassinosteroid-deficient mutant, osdwarf4-1, is associated with enhanced grain yields under conditions of dense planting, even without extra fertilizer. Molecular and biochemical studies reveal that two different cytochrome P450s, CYP90B2/OsDWARF4 and CYP724B1/D11, function redundantly in C-22 hydroxylation, the rate-limiting step of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Therefore, despite the central role of brassinosteroids in plant growth and development, mutation of OsDWARF4 alone causes only limited defects in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and plant morphology. These results suggest that regulated genetic modulation of brassinosteroid biosynthesis can improve crops without the negative environmental effects of fertilizers.Nature Biotechnology 02/2006; 24(1):105-9. · 32.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Triticum turgidum L var. durum is known to be particularly susceptible to infection by Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent for Fusarium head blight (FHB), which results in severe yield losses and grain contaminated with mycotoxins. This research was aimed at identifying FHB resistance in tetraploid wheat and mapping the location of FHB resistance genes. A tetraploid cross of durum wheat ('Strongfield') x Triticum carthlicum ('Blackbird') was used to generate a doubled-haploid (DH) population. This population was evaluated for type II resistance to F. graminearum in replicated greenhouse trials, in which heads were innoculated and the percent of infected spikelets was determined 21 days later. The population was also genotyped with microsatellite markers to construct a map of 424 loci, covering 2 052 cM. The FHB reaction and genotypic data were used to identify FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs). It was determined that 2 intervals on chromosomes 2BL and 6BS controlled FHB resistance in this tetraploid cross. The FHB resistance allele on chromosome 2BL (r2=0.26, logarithm of odds (LOD)=8.5) was derived from 'Strongfield', and the FHB resistance allele on chromosome 6BS (r2=0.23, LOD=6.6) was derived from 'Blackbird'. Two other loci, on chromosomes 5AS and 2AL, were shown to regulate FHB infection and to have an epistatic effect on the FHB resistance QTL on chromosome 6BS. Further, the FHB resistance QTL peak on chromosome 6BS was clearly coincident with the known FHB resistance gene Fhb2, derived from Sumai 3. The results show that FHB resistance can be expressed in durum wheat, and that T. carthlicum and Triticum aestivum likely share a common FHB resistance gene on chromosome 6BS.Genome 12/2006; 49(12):1586-93. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monsi and Saeki (1953) published the first mathematical model of canopy photosynthesis that was based on the light attenuation within a canopy and a light response of leaf photosynthesis. This paper reviews the evolution and development of their theory. Monsi and Saeki showed that under full light conditions, canopy photosynthesis is maximized at a high leaf area index (LAI, total leaf area per unit ground area) with vertically inclined leaves, while under low light conditions, it is at a low LAI with horizontal leaves. They suggested that actual plants develop a stand structure to maximize canopy photosynthesis. Combination of the Monsi-Saeki model with the cost-benefit hypothesis in resource use led to a new canopy photosynthesis model, where leaf nitrogen distribution and associated photosynthetic capacity were taken into account. The gradient of leaf nitrogen in a canopy was shown to be a direct response to the gradient of light. This response enables plants to use light and nitrogen efficiently, two resources whose supply is limited in the natural environment. The canopy photosynthesis model stimulated studies to scale-up from chloroplast biochemistry to canopy carbon gain and to analyse the resource-use strategy of species and individuals growing at different light and nitrogen availabilities. Canopy photosynthesis models are useful to analyse the size structure of populations in plant communities and to predict the structure and function of future terrestrial ecosystems.Annals of Botany 03/2005; 95(3):483-94. · 3.45 Impact Factor