Hereditary cerebral small vessel diseases: A review

Department of Neurological, Neurosurgical and Behavioural Sciences, Medical School, University of Siena, Italy. Electronic address: .
Journal of the neurological sciences (Impact Factor: 2.26). 08/2012; 322(1-2):25-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2012.07.041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cerebral microangiopathies are responsible of a great number of strokes. In the recent years advances in molecular genetics identified several monogenic conditions involving cerebral small vessels and predisposing to ischemic and/or hemorrhagic stroke and diffuse white matter disease leading to vascular dementia. Clinical features and diagnostic clues of these conditions, [cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL), COL4A1-related cerebral small vessel diseases, autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (AD-RVLC), and Fabry's disease] are here reviewed. Albeit with variable phenotypes and with different defective genes, all these disorders produce arteriopathy and microvascular disintegration with changes in brain functions. Specific diagnostic tools are recommended, genetic analysis being the gold standard for the diagnosis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a cerebrovascular small-vessel disease caused by stereotyped mutations in the Notch3 gene altering the number of cysteine residues. We directly sequenced exons 2-23 of the Notch3 gene in 30 unrelated Russian patients with clinical/neuroimaging picture suggestive of CADASIL. To confirm the pathogenicity of new nucleotide variants, we used the standard bioinformatics tools and screened 200 ethnically matched individuals as controls. We identified 16 different point mutations in the Notch3 gene in 18 unrelated patients, including 4 new missense mutations (C194G, V252M, C338F, and C484G). All but two mutations affected the cysteine residue. The non-cysteine change V322M was shown to be associated with CADASIL-specific deposits of granular osmiophilic material in the vascular smooth-muscle cells, which confirmed the pathogenicity of this Notch3 variant. Two patients were shown to be compound-heterozygotes carrying two pathogenic Notch3 mutations. The disease was characterized by marked clinical variability, without evident phenotype-genotype correlations. In our sample, 60% of Russian patients with 'clinically suspected' CADASIL received the definitive molecularly proven diagnosis. Careful assessment of genealogical, clinical, and neuroimaging data in patients with lacunar stroke can help selecting patients with a high probability of finding mutations on genetic screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 01/2015; 349(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.01.018 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this Chapter is to present how Web 2.0 technologies can be adapted for Healthcare (Health 2.0). This will involve explaining the technology and real world scenarios of how this technology could be adapted to be usable for vascular dementia patients and their carers. We consider Web technology that would aid the reduction of social isolation and to help dementia patients maintain social connectedness.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the population steadily ages, dementia, in all its forms, remains a great societal challenge. Yet, our knowledge of their etiology remains rather limited. To this end, genetic studies can give us insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to the development of dementia, potentially facilitating treatments in the future. In this review we cover the most recent genetic risk factors associated with the onset of the four most common dementia types today, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). Moreover, we discuss the overlap in major underlying pathologies of dementia derived from their genetic associations. While all four dementia types appear to involve genes associated with tau-pathology and neuroinflammation only LBD, AD and VaD appear to involve amyloid genes while LBD and FTLD share alpha synuclein genes. Together these findings suggest that some of the dementias may exist along a spectrum and demonstrates the necessity to conduct large-scale studies pinpointing the etiology of the dementias and potential gene and environment interactions that may influence their development.
    Neuropsychology Review 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11065-014-9276-3 · 5.40 Impact Factor