Article

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Gag and protease: partners in resistance.

Department of Virology, Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, HP G04,614, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands.
Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.77). 08/2012; 9:63. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-63
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) maturation plays an essential role in the viral life cycle by enabling the generation of mature infectious virus particles through proteolytic processing of the viral Gag and GagPol precursor proteins. An impaired polyprotein processing results in the production of non-infectious virus particles. Consequently, particle maturation is an excellent drug target as exemplified by inhibitors specifically targeting the viral protease (protease inhibitors; PIs) and the experimental class of maturation inhibitors that target the precursor Gag and GagPol polyproteins. Considering the different target sites of the two drug classes, direct cross-resistance may seem unlikely. However, coevolution of protease and its substrate Gag during PI exposure has been observed both in vivo and in vitro. This review addresses in detail all mutations in Gag that are selected under PI pressure. We evaluate how polymorphisms and mutations in Gag affect PI therapy, an aspect of PI resistance that is currently not included in standard genotypic PI resistance testing. In addition, we consider the consequences of Gag mutations for the development and positioning of future maturation inhibitors.

1 Follower
 · 
195 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background A key challenge in the field of HIV-1 protein evolution is the identification of coevolving amino acids at the molecular level. In the past decades, many sequence-based methods have been designed to detect position-specific coevolution within and between different proteins. However, an ensemble coevolution system that integrates different methods to improve the detection of HIV-1 protein coevolution has not been developed. Results We integrated 27 sequence-based prediction methods published between 2004 and 2013 into an ensemble coevolution system. This system allowed combinations of different sequence-based methods for coevolution predictions. Using HIV-1 protein structures and experimental data, we evaluated the performance of individual and combined sequence-based methods in the prediction of HIV-1 intra- and inter-protein coevolution. We showed that sequence-based methods clustered according to their methodology, and a combination of four methods outperformed any of the 27 individual methods. This four-method combination estimated that HIV-1 intra-protein coevolving positions were mainly located in functional domains and physically contacted with each other in the protein tertiary structures. In the analysis of HIV-1 inter-protein coevolving positions between Gag and protease, protease drug resistance positions near the active site mostly coevolved with Gag cleavage positions (V128, S373-T375, A431, F448-P453) and Gag C-terminal positions (S489-Q500) under the selective pressure of protease inhibitors. Conclusions This study presents a new ensemble coevolution system which detects position-specific coevolution using combinations of 27 different sequence-based methods. Our findings highlight key coevolving residues within HIV-1 structural proteins and between Gag and protease, shedding light on HIV-1 intra- and inter-protein coevolution.
    Biology Direct 12/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-2088097588151636 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic processing of viral polyproteins is essential for retrovirus infectivity. Retroviral proteases (PR) become activated during or after assembly of the immature, non-infectious virion. They cleave viral polyproteins at specific sites, inducing major structural rearrangements termed maturation. Maturation converts retroviral enzymes into their functional form, transforms the immature shell into a metastable state primed for early replication events, and enhances viral entry competence. Not only cleavage at all PR recognition sites, but also an ordered sequence of cleavages is crucial. Proteolysis is tightly regulated, but the triggering mechanisms and kinetics and pathway of morphological transitions remain enigmatic. Here, we outline PR structures and substrate specificities focusing on HIV PR as a therapeutic target. We discuss design and clinical success of HIV PR inhibitors, as well as resistance development towards these drugs. Finally, we summarize data elucidating the role of proteolysis in maturation and highlight unsolved questions regarding retroviral maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Virology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.021 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and their use in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has led to the effective control of HIV replication in infected patients. However the emergence of resistant HIV-1 strains still remains a problem. Literature has shown that mutations may accumulate in the protease (PR) and gag regions of HIV-1 patients who fail therapy with protease inhibitor (PI) drugs (1, 2). Gag mutations have also been found to play an important role in the evolution of PI resistance (2). Despite this, the standard genotypic drug-resistance test examines mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) and PR region of HIV-1 and not gag (3). This study investigated the frequency of gag drug resistance mutations in the absence of major PI mutations in HIV-1 subtype C patients, failing a PI inclusive treatment regimen. Sixty-eight samples were retrieved from patients that were classified as second line treatment failures as they had a viral load greater than 1000 copies\mL, as well as detectable lopinavir (LPV) levels. The gag and protease region of these patients were genotyped. Mutations in the gag and protease region were assessed using the REga Db sequencing tool and the CPR programme on the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database. The mean LPV level of these samples was 11.66 µg/mL. 69.11% (n=46) of the patients have no major PI mutations in protease. The following mutations that are associated with PI exposure were present in the data set: G62R (n=6), H219Q (n=11), S737T (n=8), I389T (n=8) and Q474L (n=7). Predictably, mutations that are associated with PI resistance were found, which are generally located in the p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage site. These mutations are K436R (n=4), I437V (n=1), L449P (n=5), R452K (n=4) and P453L\T (n=9). These results contribute to the knowledge of resistance mutations in gag and their impact on PI resistance.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4(Suppl 3)):19784. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19784 · 4.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
33 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014