Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation suggests its broad regulatory scope in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT Summary Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation plays important regulatory roles in living cells. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used unicellular eukaryotic model organism in biomedical research. S. cerevisiae contain several evolutionary conserved lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. However, only a few dozen acetylation sites in S. cerevisiae are known, presenting a major obstacle for further understanding the regulatory roles of acetylation in this organism. Here we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify about 4,000 lysine acetylation sites in S. cerevisiae. Acetylated proteins are implicated in the regulation of diverse cytoplasmic and nuclear processes including chromatin organization, mitochondrial metabolism, and protein synthesis. Bioinformatic analysis of yeast acetylation sites shows that acetylated lysines are significantly more conserved compared to non-acetylated lysines. A large fraction of the conserved acetylation sites are present on proteins involved in cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding. Furthermore, quantification of the Rpd3-regulated acetylation sites identified several previously known, as well as new putative substrates of this deacetylase. Rpd3 deficiency increased acetylation of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase) complex subunit Sgf73 on K33. This acetylation site is located within a critical regulatory domain in Sgf73 that interacts with Ubp8 and involved in the activation of the Ubp8-containing histone H2B deubiquitylase complex. Our data provides the first global survey of acetylation in budding yeast, and suggests a wide-ranging regulatory scope of this modification. The provided dataset may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in eukaryotes.
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ABSTRACT: Post-translational modification of proteins is a reversible mechanism of cellular adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In eukaryotes, the physiological relevance of N-ɛ-lysine protein acetylation is well demonstrated. In recent times, important roles in the regulation of metabolic processes in bacteria are being uncovered, adding complexity to cellular regulatory networks. The aim of this mini-review is to sum up the current state-of-the-art in the regulation of bacterial physiology by protein acetylation. Current knowledge on the molecular biology aspects of known bacterial protein acetyltransferases and deacetylases will be summarized. Protein acetylation in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, will be explained in the light of their physiological relevance. Progress in the elucidation of bacterial acetylomes and the emerging understanding of chemical acylation mechanisms will be discussed together with their regulatory and evolutionary implications. Fundamental molecular studies detailing this recently discovered regulatory mechanism pave the way for their prospective application for the construction of synthetic regulation networks.New Biotechnology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nbt.2014.03.002 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysine modifications have been studied extensively in the nucleus, where they play pivotal roles in gene regulation and constitute one of the pillars of epigenetics. In the cytoplasm, they are critical to proteostasis. However, in the last decade we have also witnessed the emergence of mitochondria as a prime locus for post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine thanks, in large measure, to evolving proteomic techniques. Here, we review recent work on evolving set of PTM that arise from the direct reaction of lysine residues with energized metabolic thioester-coenzyme A intermediates, including acetylation, succinylation, malonylation, and glutarylation. We highlight the evolutionary conservation, kinetics, stoichiometry, and cross-talk between members of this emerging family of PTMs. We examine the impact on target protein function and regulation by mitochondrial sirtuins. Finally, we spotlight work in the heart and cardiac mitochondria, and consider the roles acetylation and other newly-found modifications may play in heart disease.Frontiers in Physiology 09/2014; 5:301. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00301 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-modification that is known to play diverse functions in eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the composition and function of non-histone lysine acetylation in gametes remain unknown. In humans, only capacitated sperm have the capacity to fertilize an egg. In the present study, we found complex composition of lysine acetylated proteins in capacitated human sperm. In vitro fertilization inhibition assay by anti-acetyllysine antibody showed essential roles of lysine acetylation in fertilization. And inhibition of lysine deacetylases, the histone deacetylases, by trichostatin A and nicotinamide, could significantly suppress sperm motility. After immunopurification enrichment of acetylpeptides with anti-acetyllysine antibody and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification, we characterized 1206 lysine acetylated sites, corresponding to 576 lysine acetylated proteins in human capacitated sperm. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these proteins are associated with sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and sperm-egg interaction. Thus, lysine acetylation is expected to be an important regulatory mechanism for sperm functions. And our characterization of lysine acetylproteome could be a rich resource for the study of male fertility.Journal of Proteomics 07/2014; 109. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.07.002 · 3.93 Impact Factor