Acute mechanical forces cause deterioration in lung structure and function in elastase-induced emphysema
ABSTRACT The relation between the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbations is unclear. Currently, no animal model of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) exists. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of mechanical forces induced by deep inspirations (DIs) on short-term deterioration of lung structure and function to mimic AECOPD. At 2, 7, or 21 days after treatment with elastase, mice were ventilated with or without DIs (35 cmH(2)O airway pressure for 3 s, 2 times/min) for 1 h. Functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured with body plethysmography, and respiratory compliance, resistance, and hysteresivity were obtained via forced oscillations. From hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, equivalent airspace diameters (D), alveolar wall thickness (W(t)), number of septal ruptures (N(sr)), and attachment density (A(d)) around airways were determined. FRC, compliance, and hysteresivity statistically significantly increased with time, and both increased due to DIs. Interestingly, DIs also had an effect on FRC, compliance, resistance, and hysteresivity in control mice. The development of emphysema statistically significantly increased D and W(t) in time, and the DIs caused subtle differences in D. At 21 days, the application of DIs changed the distribution of D, increased W(t) and N(sr), and decreased A(d). These results suggest that once a critical remodeling of the parenchyma has been reached, acute mechanical forces lead to irreversible changes in structure and function, mimicking COPD exacerbations. Thus, the acute application of DIs in mice with emphysema may serve as a useful model of AECOPD.
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ABSTRACT: Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be related to air pollution, of which ozone is an important constituent. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles associated with ozone-induced exacerbations in a smoking-induced emphysema model. Mice were divided into the following groups: group I, no smoking and no ozone (NS + NO); group II, no smoking and ozone (NS + O); group III, smoking and no ozone (S + NO); and group IV, smoking and ozone (S + O). Bronchoalveolar lavage, the mean linear intercept (MLI) on hematoxylin and eosin staining, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and Western blotting analyses were performed. The MLIs of groups III (S + NO) and IV (S + O) (45 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 µm, respectively) were significantly higher than those of groups I (NS + NO) and II (NS + O) (26 ± 2 and 23 ± 2 µm, respectively; p < 0.05). Fourteen spots that showed significantly different intensities on image analyses of two-dimensional (2D) protein electrophoresis in group I (NS + NO) were identified by LC-MS/MS. The levels of six proteins were higher in group IV (S + O). The levels of vimentin, lactate dehydrogenase A, and triose phosphate isomerase were decreased by both smoking and ozone treatment in Western blotting and proteomic analyses. In contrast, TBC1 domain family 5 (TBC1D5) and lamin A were increased by both smoking and ozone treatment. TBC1D5 could be a biomarker of ozone-induced lung injury in emphysema.The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2015; 30(1):62-72. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2015.30.1.62
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ABSTRACT: Transpulmonary pressure and the mechanical stresses of breathing modulate many essential cell functions in the lung via mechanotransduction. We review how mechanical factors could influence the pathogenesis of emphysema. Although the progression of emphysema has been linked to mechanical rupture, little is known about how these stresses alter lung remodeling. We present possible new directions and an integrated multiscale view that may prove useful in finding solutions for this disease.Physiology 11/2013; 28(6):404-13. DOI:10.1152/physiol.00041.2013 · 5.65 Impact Factor