Cloning and Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Lytic Endopeptidases L1 and L5 from Lysobacter sp. Strain XL1.
ABSTRACT Lytic enzymes are the group of hydrolases that break down structural polymers of the cell walls of various microorganisms. In this work, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 alpA and alpB genes, which code for, respectively, secreted lytic endopeptidases L1 (AlpA) and L5 (AlpB). In silico analysis of their amino acid sequences showed these endopeptidases to be homologous proteins synthesized as precursors similar in structural organization: the mature enzyme sequence is preceded by an N-terminal signal peptide and a pro region. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB were assigned to the S1E family [clan PA(S)] of serine peptidases. Expression of the alpA and alpB open reading frames (ORFs) in Escherichia coli confirmed that they code for functionally active lytic enzymes. Each ORF was predicted to have the Shine-Dalgarno sequence located at a canonical distance from the start codon and a potential Rho-independent transcription terminator immediately after the stop codon. The alpA and alpB mRNAs were experimentally found to be monocistronic; transcription start points were determined for both mRNAs. The synthesis of the alpA and alpB mRNAs was shown to occur predominantly in the late logarithmic growth phase. The amount of alpA mRNA in cells of Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 was much higher, which correlates with greater production of endopeptidase L1 than of L5.
American Journal of Psychiatry 04/1989; 146(3):409. · 12.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peptidases, their substrates and inhibitors are of great relevance to biology, medicine and biotechnology. The MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) aims to fulfil the need for an integrated source of information about these. The database has hierarchical classifications in which homologous sets of peptidases and protein inhibitors are grouped into protein species, which are grouped into families, which are in turn grouped into clans. The database has been expanded to include proteolytic enzymes other than peptidases. Special identifiers for peptidases from a variety of model organisms have been established so that orthologues can be detected in other species. A table of predicted active-site residue and metal ligand positions and the residue ranges of the peptidase domains in orthologues has been added to each peptidase summary. New displays of tertiary structures, which can be rotated or have the surfaces displayed, have been added to the structure pages. New indexes for gene names and peptidase substrates have been made available. Among the enhancements to existing features are the inclusion of small-molecule inhibitors in the tables of peptidase-inhibitor interactions, a table of known cleavage sites for each protein substrate, and tables showing the substrate-binding preferences of peptidases derived from combinatorial peptide substrate libraries.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2011; 40(Database issue):D343-50. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: The sigma70 family of sigma factors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Members of the sigma70 family of sigma factors are components of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme that direct bacterial or plastid core RNA polymerase to specific promoter elements that are situated 10 and 35 base-pairs upstream of transcription-initiation points. Members of the sigma70 family also function as contact points for some activator proteins, such as PhoB and lambda(cl), and play a role in the initiation process itself. The primary sigma factor, which is essential for general transcription in exponentially growing cells, is reversibly associated with RNA polymerase and can be replaced by alternative sigma factors that co-ordinately express genes involved in diverse functions, such as stress responses, morphological development and iron uptake. On the basis of gene structure and function, members of the sigma70 family can broadly be divided into four main groups. Sequence alignments of the sigma70 family members reveal that they have four conserved regions, although the highest conservation is found in regions 2 and 4, which are involved in binding to RNA polymerase, recognizing promoters and separating DNA strands (so-called 'DNA melting'). The division of the linear sequence of sigma70 factors into four regions is largely supported by recent structural data indicating that primary sigma factors have three stable domains that incorporate regions 2, 3 and 4. Furthermore, structures of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme have revealed that these domains of sigma70 are spread out across one face of RNA polymerase. These structural data are starting to illuminate the mechanistic role of sigma factors in transcription initiation.Genome biology 02/2003; 4(1):203. · 6.63 Impact Factor