Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles.
ABSTRACT Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quality and genome-wide expression signature. RNA integrity number (RIN) values were compared between total RNA samples extracted from consecutive LRP (n=11) and ORP (n=24) prostate specimens. Expression profiling was performed using the Agilent human whole-genome expression microarrays. Expression differences by surgical type were analyzed by Volcano plot analysis and gene ontology analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used for expression validation in an independent set of LRP (n=8) and ORP (n=8) samples. The LRP procedure did not compromise RNA integrity. Differential gene expression by surgery types was limited to a small subset of genes, the number of which was smaller than that expected by chance. Unexpectedly, this small subset of differentially expressed genes was enriched for those encoding transcription factors, oxygen transporters and other previously reported surgery-induced stress-response genes, and demonstrated unidirectional reduction in LRP specimens in comparison to ORP specimens. The effect of the LRP procedure on RNA quality and genome-wide transcript levels is negligible, supporting the suitability of LRP surgical specimens for routine molecular analysis. Blunted in vivo stress response in LRP specimens, likely mediated by CO(2) insufflation but not by longer ischemia time, is manifested in the reduced expression of stress-response genes in these specimens.
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Article: ATF3 and stress responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to discuss ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, and its roles in stress responses. In the introduction, we briefly describe the ATF/CREB family, which contains more than 10 proteins with the basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) DNA binding domain. We summarize their DNA binding and heterodimer formation with other bZip proteins, and discuss the nomenclature of these proteins. Over the years, identical or homologous cDNA clones have been isolated by different laboratories and given different names. We group these proteins into subgroups according to their amino acid similarity; we also list the alternative names for each member, and clarify some potential confusion in the nomenclature of this family of proteins. We then focus on ATF3 and its potential roles in stress responses. We review the evidence that the mRNA level of ATF3 greatly increases when the cells are exposed to stress signals. In animal experiments, the signals include ischemia, ischemia coupled with reperfusion, wounding, axotomy, toxicity, and seizure; in cultured cells, the signals include serum factors, cytokines, genotoxic agents, cell death-inducing agents, and the adenoviral protein E1A. Despite the overwhelming evidence for its induction by stress signals, not much else is known about ATF3. Preliminary results suggest that the JNK/SAPK pathway is involved in the induction of ATF3 by stress signals; in addition, IL-6 and p53 have been demonstrated to be required for the induction of ATF3 under certain conditions. The consequences of inducing ATF3 during stress responses are not clear. Transient transfection and in vitro transcription assays indicate that ATF3 represses transcription as a homodimer; however, ATF3 can activate transcription when coexpressed with its heterodimeric partners or other proteins. Therefore, it is possible that, when induced during stress responses, ATF3 activates some target genes but represses others, depending on the promoter context and cellular context. Even less is understood about the physiological significance of inducing ATF3. We will discuss our preliminary results and some reports by other investigators in this regard.Gene Expression 02/1999; 7(4-6):321-35. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of thousands of genes can be monitored simultaneously using cDNA microarray technology. This technology is being used to understand the complexity of human disease. One significant technical concern regards potential alterations in gene expression because of the effect of tissue ischemia. This study evaluates the increase in the differential gene expression because of tissue processing time. To evaluate differential gene expression because of ischemia time, prostate samples were divided into five time points (0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 hours). Each time point consisted of a homogeneous mixture of 12 to 15 prostate tissue cubes (5 mm(3)). These tissues were maintained at room temperature until at the assigned time point the tissue was placed in OCT, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 degrees C until RNA extraction. RNA from each time point was hybridized against an aliquot of 0 time point RNA from the same prostate. Four prostate glands were used in parallel studies. M-A plots were graphed to compare variability between time point sample hybridizations. Statistical Analysis of Microarray software was used to identify genes overexpressed at the 1-hour time point versus the 0-hour time with statistically significance. Microarray analysis revealed only a small percentage of genes (<0.6%) from more than 9000 to demonstrate overexpression at the 1-hour time point. Among the 41 statistically significant named overexpressed genes at the 1-hour time point were early growth response 1 (EGR1), jun B proto-oncogene (jun B), jun D proto-oncogene (jun D), and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Genes previously associated with prostate cancer did not have significantly altered expression with ischemia time. Increased EGR1 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Microarray technology has opened the possibility of evaluating the expression of a multitude of genes simultaneously, however, the interpretation of this complex data needs to be assessed circumspectly using refined statistical methods. Because RNA expression represents the tissue response to insults such as ischemia, and is also sensitive to degradation, investigators need be mindful of confounding artifacts secondary to tissue processing. All attempts should be made to process tissue rapidly to ensure that the microarray gene profile accurately represents the state of the cells and confirmatory studies should be performed using alternative methods (eg, Northern blot analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry).American Journal Of Pathology 12/2002; 161(5):1743-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies centered at the intersection of embryogenesis and carcinogenesis have identified striking parallels involving signaling pathways that modulate both developmental and neoplastic processes. In the prostate, reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma are known to influence neoplasia and also exert morphogenic effects via the urogenital sinus mesenchyme. In this study, we sought to determine molecular relationships between aspects of normal prostate development and prostate carcinogenesis. We first characterized the gene expression program associated with key points of murine prostate organogenesis spanning the initial in utero induction of prostate budding through maturity. We identified a highly reproducible temporal program of gene expression that partitioned according to the broad developmental stages of prostate induction, branching morphogenesis, and secretory differentiation. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of murine prostate cancers arising in the context of genetically engineered alterations in the Pten tumor suppressor and Myc oncogene identified significant associations between the profile of branching morphogenesis and both cancer models. Further, the expression of genes comprising the branching morphogenesis program, such as PRDX4, SLC43A1, and DNMT3A, was significantly altered in human neoplastic prostate epithelium. These results indicate that components of normal developmental processes are active in prostate neoplasia and provide further rationale for exploiting molecular features of organogenesis to understand cancer phenotypes.Cancer Research 03/2009; 69(5):1739-47. · 8.65 Impact Factor