Adrenergic Nerves Govern Circadian Leukocyte Recruitment to Tissues
ABSTRACT The multistep sequence leading to leukocyte migration is thought to be locally regulated at the inflammatory site. Here, we show that broad systemic programs involving long-range signals from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) delivered by adrenergic nerves regulate rhythmic recruitment of leukocytes in tissues. Constitutive leukocyte adhesion and migration in murine bone marrow (BM) and skeletal-muscle microvasculature fluctuated with circadian peak values at night. Migratory oscillations, altered by experimental jet lag, were implemented by perivascular SNS fibers acting on β-adrenoreceptors expressed on nonhematopoietic cells and leading to tissue-specific, differential circadian oscillations in the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and chemokines. We showed that these rhythms have physiological consequences through alteration of hematopoietic cell recruitment and overall survival in models of septic shock, sickle cell vaso-occlusion, and BM transplantation. These data provide unique insights in the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the potential for time-based therapeutics for transplantation and inflammatory diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The immune system is deeply interconnected with the endogenous 24-h oscillators of the circadian system. Indeed, the connection between these two physiological systems occurs at multiple levels and in both directions. On one hand, various aspects of the immune system show daily rhythms, which appear to be essential for healthy immune maintenance and proper immune response. On the other hand, immune responses cause changes in circadian rhythms, disrupting their delicate balance and manifesting in disease. Indeed, immune challenges cause various time-, gene-, and tissue-specific effects on circadian-regulated factors. This article reviews the possible mediators of the cross talk between the circadian clock and the immune system, in particular the inflammatory pathways. The rhythmic expression of cytokines and their receptors, as well as other rhythmically regulated humoral factors such as glucocorticoids, melatonin, leptin, or prostaglandins, could gate the effects of the immune response on the circadian system. In addition, systemic cues such as body temperature and neuronal connections between the brain and peripheral tissues may underlie the immune-circadian communication.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 04/2014; 62(4). DOI:10.1007/s00005-014-0286-x · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unique among leukocytes, neutrophils follow daily cycles of release from and migration back into the bone marrow, where they are eliminated. Because removal of dying cells generates homeostatic signals, we explored whether neutrophil elimination triggers circadian events in the steady state. Here, we report that the homeostatic clearance of neutrophils provides cues that modulate the physiology of the bone marrow. We identify a population of CD62L(LO) CXCR4(HI) neutrophils that have "aged" in the circulation and are eliminated at the end of the resting period in mice. Aged neutrophils infiltrate the bone marrow and promote reductions in the size and function of the hematopoietic niche. Modulation of the niche depends on macrophages and activation of cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptors and is essential for the rhythmic egress of hematopoietic progenitors into the circulation. Our results unveil a process that synchronizes immune and hematopoietic rhythms and expand the ascribed functions of neutrophils beyond inflammation. PAPERFLICK:Cell 05/2013; 153(5):1025-1035. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.040 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this issue of Immunity, Scheiermann et al. (2012) demonstrate that circadian regulation of the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via adrenergic innervation of local vasculature promotes clinically significant changes in leukocyte homing and bone marrow engraftment.Immunity 08/2012; 37(2):189-91. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2012.08.004 · 19.75 Impact Factor