Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: Randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru

Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Av. La Molina 1885, La Molina Lima-12, Peru.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 07/2012; 30(41):5935-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.043
Source: PubMed


In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

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    • "It was shown in the CYD14 and CYD15 studies that the baseline dengue serological status was an important covariate for efficacy (see above), and therefore, it was important to also characterize the type of immunity present in sera from vaccinated participants who were dengue-seropositive at baseline. It was previously observed that higher PRNT 50 responses were induced after vaccination in flavivirus seropositive than seronegative participants [28] [29] [30]. Subsequently, using depletion studies as mentioned above, it was observed in the sera from seropositive participants at baseline that a higher and broader cross-reactive response was present against all four serotypes after vaccination [45]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sanofi Pasteur has developed a recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) that is in late-stage development. The present review summarizes the different steps in the development of this dengue vaccine, with a particular focus on the clinical data from three efficacy trials, which includes one proof-of-concept phase IIb (NCT00842530) and two pivotal phase III efficacy trials (NCT01373281 and NCT01374516). Earlier studies showed that the CYD-TDV candidate had a satisfactory safety profile and was immunogenic across the four vaccine serotypes in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical tests, as well as in initial phase I to phase II clinical trials in both flavivirus-naïve and seropositive individuals. Data from the 25 months (after the first injection) active phase of the two pivotal phase III efficacy studies shows that CYD-TDV (administered at 0, 6, and 12 months) is efficacious against virologically-confirmed disease (primary endpoint) and has a good safety profile. Secondary analyses also showed efficacy against all four dengue serotypes and protection against severe disease and hospitalization. The end of the active phases in these studies completes more than a decade of development of CYD-TDV, but considerable activities and efforts remain to address outstanding scientific, clinical, and immunological questions, while preparing for the introduction and use of CYD-TDV. Additional safety observations were recently reported from the first complete year of hospital phase longer term surveillance for two phase 3 studies and the first and second completed years for one phase 2b study, demonstrating the optimal age for intervention from 9 years. Dengue is a complex disease, and both short-term and long-term safety and efficacy will continue to be addressed by ongoing long-term follow-up and future post-licensure studies.
    Vaccine 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.108 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "A recombinant yellow fever-17D–dengue virus, live, attenuated , tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is currently under development for the control of dengue disease. CYD-TDV has undergone extensive safety and immunogenicity assessment in dengue endemic and non-endemic populations [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. To fulfil the needs of phase III studies, the scale-up of CYD-TDV production has been undertaken in parallel with its clinical development [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The recombinant yellow fever-17D-dengue virus, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has undergone extensive clinical trials. Here safety and consistency of immunogenicity of phase III manufacturing lots of CYD-TDV were evaluated and compared with a phase II lot and placebo in a dengue-naïve population. Healthy 18-60 year-olds were randomly assigned in a 3:3:3:3:1 ratio to receive three subcutaneous doses of either CYD-TDV from any one of three phase III lots or a phase II lot, or placebo, respectively in a 0, 6, 12 month dosing schedule. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres (PRNT50 GMTs) for each of the four dengue serotypes were compared in sera collected 28 days after the third vaccination-equivalence among lots was demonstrated if the lower and upper limits of the two-sided 95% CIs of the GMT ratio were ≥0.5 and ≤2.0, respectively. 712 participants received vaccine or placebo and 614 (86%) completed the study; 17 (2.4%) participants withdrew after adverse events. Equivalence of phase III lots was demonstrated for 11 of 12 pairwise comparisons. One of three comparisons for serotype 2 was not statistically equivalent. GMTs for serotype 2 in phase III lots were close to each other (65.9, 44.1 and 58.1, respectively). Phase III lots can be produced in a consistent manner with predictable immune response and acceptable safety profile similar to previously characterised phase II lots. The phase III lots may be considered as not clinically different as statistical equivalence was shown for serotypes 1, 3 and 4 across the phase III lots. For serotype 2, although equivalence was not shown between two lots, the GMTs observed in the phase III lots were consistently higher than those for the phase II lot. As such, in our view, biological equivalence for all serotypes was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 08/2015; 33(39). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.008 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "This multicentre, randomized, observer-blind, placebocontrolled , Phase III study was conducted between December 2010 and August 2012 at four sites in Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh (Perak state), Seremban (Negeri Sembilan state) and Kuching (Sarawak state). The methodology was similar to that of previous CYD-TDV Phase II studies [22] [26] but used Phase III vaccine lots. Healthy children (aged 2–11 years) were assigned randomly to two groups (4 CYD-TDV: 1 placebo). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue disease is a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region for which there is no licensed vaccine or treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Phase III lots of a candidate vaccine (CYD-TDV) in children in Malaysia. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study, children aged 2-11 years were randomized (4:1) to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoints included assessment of reactogenicity following each dose, adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) reported throughout the study, and immunogenicity expressed as geometric mean titres (GMTs) and distribution of dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibody titres. 250 participants enrolled in the study (CYD-TDV: n=199; placebo: n=51). There was a trend for reactogenicity to be higher with CYD-TDV than with placebo post-dose 1 (75.4% versus 68.6%) and post-dose 2 (71.6% versus 62.0%) and slightly lower post-dose 3 (57.9% versus 64.0%). Unsolicited AEs declined in frequency with each subsequent dose and were similar overall between groups (CYD-TDV: 53.8%; placebo: 49.0%). Most AEs were of Grade 1 intensity and were transient. SAEs were reported by 5.5% and 11.8% of participants in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups, respectively. No deaths were reported. Baseline seropositivity against each of the four DENV serotypes was similar between groups, ranging from 24.0% (DENV-4) to 36.7% (DENV-3). In the CYD-TDV group, GMTs increased post-dose 2 for all serotypes compared with baseline, ranging from 4.8 (DENV-1) to 8.1-fold (DENV-3). GMTs further increased post-dose 3 for DENV-1 and DENV-2. Compared with baseline, individual titre increases ranged from 6.1-fold (DENV-1) to 7.96-fold (DENV-3). This study demonstrated a satisfactory safety profile and a balanced humoral immune response against all four DENV serotypes for CYD-TDV administered via a three-dose regimen to children in Malaysia.
    Vaccine 10/2013; 31(49). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.013 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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