Rare De Novo Germline Copy-Number Variation in Testicular Cancer

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 11.2). 08/2012; 91(2):379-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although heritable factors are an important determinant of risk of early-onset cancer, the majority of these malignancies appear to occur sporadically without identifiable risk factors. Germline de novo copy-number variations (CNVs) have been observed in sporadic neurocognitive and cardiovascular disorders. We explored this mechanism in 382 genomes of 116 early-onset cancer case-parent trios and unaffected siblings. Unique de novo germline CNVs were not observed in 107 breast or colon cancer trios or controls but were indeed found in 7% of 43 testicular germ cell tumor trios; this percentage exceeds background CNV rates and suggests a rare de novo genetic paradigm for susceptibility to some human malignancies.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) account for 1-2% of all tumors in young and middle aged men. A 75-fold increase in TCGT development has been reported for monozygotic (MZ) twins. Therefore, the occurrence of simultaneous tumors in MZ twins emphasizes the importance of genetic factors that influence the risk of developing these tumors. Genomic screening was performed for one family containing MZ twins with testicular germ cell tumors, in order to define alterations associated with risk of tumor development.Methods Copy number alterations were evaluated using array-CGH (4x44K, Agilent Technologies) in one seminoma and one embryonal carcinoma (EC) from MZ twins. In addition, genomic alterations from the tumors and peripheral blood cells of the twins were compared to the parental genomes via their peripheral blood cells.ResultsEmbryonal carcinoma (Twin-1 t) presented a lower frequency of genomic alterations compared to the seminoma (Twin-2 t). One minimal common region of loss was observed in 9p13.1-p12 in the comparison between DNA from blood samples for Twin-1 and Twin-2. In this region is mapped the CNTNAP3 gene which was confirmed as involved in losses by qPCR. Comparative analysis of novel CNVs between the Twin-1 t and Twin-2 t showed five minimal common regions involving gain at chromosomes 12 (12p12.3-p11.1 and 12p13.33-p12.3), while losses were observed at 10p15.3-p15.2, 13q21.1-q21.2 and 15q11.1-q11.2. In addition, one exclusive rare copy number alteration was detected in Twin-1 t and Twin-2 t, and 19 novel alterations were identified in the Twin-2 t.Conclusion Distinct genomic profiles for MZ twins with phenotypically different TGCT were described. Of particular interest, 12p gains were detected exclusively in tumor samples. In peripheral blood samples, loss of 9p13.1-p12 was the unique novel CNV shared by the twins, confirming the involvement of CNTNAP3 gene in TGCTs development. Although similar CNV profiles were shared by both the peripheral blood and tumor samples of the twins, tumor-specific CNV loci were identified for seminoma and non-seminomatous tumors. These findings suggest the presence of de novo germline structural alterations and TGCT predisposition.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2014; 9(1):181. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0181-x · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although family history is a risk factor for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, much of the genetic etiology of this disease remains unknown. While genome-wide association studies have identified some common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with pancreatic cancer risk, these SNPs do not explain all the heritability of this disease. We hypothesized that copy number variation (CNVs) in the genome may play a role in genetic predisposition to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of CNVs in a small hospital-based, European ancestry cohort of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Germline CNV discovery was performed using the Illumina Human CNV370 platform in 223 pancreatic cancer cases (both sporadic and familial) and 169 controls. Following stringent quality control, we asked if global CNV burden was a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Finally, we performed in silico CNV genotyping and association testing to discover novel CNV risk loci. When we examined the global CNV burden, we found no strong evidence that CNV burden plays a role in pancreatic cancer risk either overall or specifically in individuals with a family history of the disease. Similarly, we saw no significant evidence that any particular CNV is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Taken together, these data suggest that CNVs do not contribute substantially to the genetic etiology of pancreatic cancer, though the results are tempered by small sample size and large experimental variability inherent in array-based CNV studies.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2014; 5:29. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00029
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    ABSTRACT: This Review summarizes the cumulative results of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Genetics Branch Multidisciplinary Etiologic Study of Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (FTGCT). Initiated 12 years ago, this protocol enrolled 724 subjects from 147 unrelated families with either ≥2 affected men (n = 90) with TGCT or a proband with bilateral TGCT and a negative family history for this cancer (n = 57). Data were collected directly from 162 subjects evaluated at the NIH Clinical Center, and 562 subjects provided information from their home communities (Field Cohort). The primary study aims included (i) ascertaining, enrolling eligible FTGCT kindred, (ii) characterizing the clinical phenotype of multiple-case families, (iii) identifying the underlying genetic mechanism for TGCT susceptibility in families, (iv) evaluating counseling, psychosocial, and behavioral issues resulting from membership in an FTGCT family, and (v) creating an annotated biospecimen repository to permit subsequent translational research studies. Noteworthy findings include (i) documenting the epidemiologic similarities between familial and sporadic TGCT, (ii) demonstrating significantly younger age-at-diagnosis for familial vs. sporadic TGCT, (iii) absence of a dysmorphic phenotype in affected family members, (iv) shifting the focus of gene discovery from a search for rare, highly penetrant susceptibility variants to the hypothesis that multiple, more common, lower penetrance genes underlie TGCT genetic risk, (v) implicating testicular microlithiasis in FTGCT risk, and (vi) observing that aberrant methylation may contribute to FTGCT risk. A clinically based, biospecimen-intensive, multidisciplinary research strategy has provided novel, valuable insights into the etiology of FTGCT, and created a research resource which will support FTGCT clinical and laboratory studies for years to come.
    Andrology 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/andr.294 · 3.37 Impact Factor

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