Exploring the concept of HIV-related stigma.
ABSTRACT HIV infection is a chronic, manageable illness. Despite advances in the care and treatment of people living with HIV infection, HIV-related stigma remains a challenge to HIV testing, care, and prevention. Numerous studies have documented the impact of HIV-related stigma among various groups of people living with HIV infection, but the concept of HIV-related stigma remains unclear.
Concept exploration of HIV-related stigma via an integrative literature review was conducted in order to examine the existing knowledge base of this concept.
Search engines were employed to review the existing knowledge base of this concept.
After the integrative literature review, an analysis of HIV-related stigma emerged. Implications for future concept analysis, research, and practice are included.
- SourceAvailable from: Geoff Setswe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5%) were females and (n=780, 68.1%) were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83%) with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001). For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78, p-value: 0.041) and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15-3.47, p-value: 0.014), whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.62, p-value: <0.001). For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19-5.90, p-value: 0.017) and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.96, p-value: 0.035) were associated with HIV testing. The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services. One favourable intervention would be the use of home-based HCT programmes.Global Health Action 04/2015; 8. DOI:10.3402/gha.v8.26950 · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The HIV/AIDS scenario all over the world is complicated by the stigmatic and discriminative attitudes toward the HIV-infected individuals. In this facility-based, cross-sectional study, 104 HIV-positive patients were assessed regarding their personal experience with HIV-related stigma and discrimination using a Revised HIV Stigma Scale. The association between stigma and factors such as socioeconomic status and gender was tested using chi-square test, and P < .05 was considered statistically significant. A large proportion (41.3%) of the participants were in the age-group of 26 to 35 years. Confidentiality of the HIV positivity status was maintained only in 14.4% of the participants. Compared to females (48.2%), more than half (51.5%) of the male participants had experienced HIV/AIDS-related personalized stigma (P > .05). HIV-related stigma and discrimination are the major social determinants driving the epidemic, despite the advances in medical treatment and increases in the awareness about the disease. © The Author(s) 2015.02/2015; DOI:10.1177/2325957415569309
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 09/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0331 · 3.58 Impact Factor