Exploring the concept of HIV-related stigma.
ABSTRACT HIV infection is a chronic, manageable illness. Despite advances in the care and treatment of people living with HIV infection, HIV-related stigma remains a challenge to HIV testing, care, and prevention. Numerous studies have documented the impact of HIV-related stigma among various groups of people living with HIV infection, but the concept of HIV-related stigma remains unclear.
Concept exploration of HIV-related stigma via an integrative literature review was conducted in order to examine the existing knowledge base of this concept.
Search engines were employed to review the existing knowledge base of this concept.
After the integrative literature review, an analysis of HIV-related stigma emerged. Implications for future concept analysis, research, and practice are included.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for contracting and transmitting HIV. They are increasingly encouraged to get tested, but understanding of the interplay between HIV testing and risk behavior is limited. One hundred fifty newly HIV-diagnosed (within past 3 months) MSM were recruited from a community clinic in New York City. Participants completed an interview assessing sexual behavior and substance use during the 3 months pre-diagnosis, current depressive symptoms, and prior HIV testing. HIV-related health characteristics at diagnosis were abstracted from medical records. Analyses examined factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the 3 months pre-diagnosis, and with a negative HIV test in the 12 months pre-diagnosis. The sample was young (mean age=32.5, SD=8.8), ethnically diverse (62% racial/ethnic minority), low-income (71%≤$30,000/year), and educated (48% college/advanced degree). Most (95%) had a prior negative HIV test, 55% within the last 12 months. Significant risk behavior was reported, with 79% reporting UAI. UAI was associated with recent testing and use of substances during sexual behavior. Recent testing was associated with being employed/a student, having had UAI, and higher CD4 count. Implications for future research addressing perceived HIV risk, HIV testing utilization, and risk behavior are discussed.AIDS patient care and STDs 06/2013; 27(6):333-41. DOI:10.1089/apc.2012.0313 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women.AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 09/2014; 28(10). DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0331 · 3.58 Impact Factor