Impact of global economic disparities on practices and outcomes of chronic peritoneal dialysis in children: insights from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: The number of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) is increasing rapidly on a global scale. We analyzed the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) registry, a global database active in 33 countries spanning a wide range in gross national income (GNI), to identify the impact of economic conditions on CPD practices and outcomes in children and adolescents. RESULTS: We observed close associations of GNI with the fraction of very young patients on dialysis, the presence and number of comorbidities, the prevalence of patients with unexplained causes of end-stage kidney disease, and the rate of culture-negative peritonitis. The prevalence of automated PD increased with GNI, but was 46% even in the lowest GNI stratum. The GNI stratum also affected the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysis fluids, enteral tube feeding, calcium-free phosphate binders, active vitamin D analogs, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patient mortality was strongly affected by GNI (hazard ratio per $10 000: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 5.5) independently of young patient age and the number of comorbidities present. Patients from low-income countries tended to die more often from infections unrelated to CPD (5 of 9 vs 15 of 61, p = 0.1). The GNI was also a strong independent predictor of standardized height (p < 0.0001), adding to the impact of congenital renal disease, anuria, age at PD start, and dialysis vintage. Patients from the lower economic strata (GNI < $18 000) had higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium, and achieved lower hemoglobin concentrations. No impact of GNI was observed with regard to CPD technique survival or peritonitis incidence. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CPD is practiced successfully, albeit with major regional variation related to economic differences, in children around the globe. The variations encompass the acceptance of very young patients and those with associated comorbidities to chronic dialysis programs, the use of automated PD and expensive drugs, and the diagnostic management of peritonitis. These variations in practice related to economic difference do not appear to affect PD technique survival; however, economic conditions seem to affect mortality on dialysis and standardized height, a marker of global child morbidity.
Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 02/2015; 35(1):93-96. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2013.00342 · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An increased emphasis has been placed on the early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the neonatal population, given the long-term health consequences that can accompany this diagnosis. The definition of CKD in neonates and young infants differs from that of children older than 2 years and, if severe, treatment may mandate dialysis with appropriate ethical considerations. Special attention must also be directed to optimal nutrition because of its impact on height, weight, and brain development in the young child experiencing impaired kidney function. There has been steady improvement in patient survival over the last decade.Clinics in Perinatology 09/2014; 41(3):503-515. DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2014.05.002 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009 to 2011. Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe during the study period was 5.5 cases per million age-related population (pmarp) in patients aged 0-14 years and varied markedly between countries (interquartile range 3.4-7.0 years). The prevalence of RRT was 27.9 pmarp and increased with age, with 67 % of prevalent patients living with a functioning graft. The probability of receiving a transplant within 4 years was 76.9 % and was lowest in patients aged 0-4 years (68.9 %). Mortality in paediatric patients treated with RRT was 55-fold higher than that of the general EU paediatric population. Overall survival at 4 years was 93.7 %, with the poorest survival in patients aged 0-4 years and in patients starting on dialysis. Infections (19.9 %) were the primary cause of death in European paediatric RRT patients. Considerable variation exists in the current demographics of children treated with RRT across Europe.Pediatric Nephrology 07/2014; 29(12). DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-2884-6 · 2.88 Impact Factor