Impact of global economic disparities on practices and outcomes of chronic peritoneal dialysis in children: insights from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry.

Pediatric Nephrology Division, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, Heidelberg, Germany.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 07/2012; 32(4):399-409. DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2012.00126
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: The number of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) is increasing rapidly on a global scale. We analyzed the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) registry, a global database active in 33 countries spanning a wide range in gross national income (GNI), to identify the impact of economic conditions on CPD practices and outcomes in children and adolescents. RESULTS: We observed close associations of GNI with the fraction of very young patients on dialysis, the presence and number of comorbidities, the prevalence of patients with unexplained causes of end-stage kidney disease, and the rate of culture-negative peritonitis. The prevalence of automated PD increased with GNI, but was 46% even in the lowest GNI stratum. The GNI stratum also affected the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysis fluids, enteral tube feeding, calcium-free phosphate binders, active vitamin D analogs, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patient mortality was strongly affected by GNI (hazard ratio per $10 000: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 5.5) independently of young patient age and the number of comorbidities present. Patients from low-income countries tended to die more often from infections unrelated to CPD (5 of 9 vs 15 of 61, p = 0.1). The GNI was also a strong independent predictor of standardized height (p < 0.0001), adding to the impact of congenital renal disease, anuria, age at PD start, and dialysis vintage. Patients from the lower economic strata (GNI < $18 000) had higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium, and achieved lower hemoglobin concentrations. No impact of GNI was observed with regard to CPD technique survival or peritonitis incidence. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CPD is practiced successfully, albeit with major regional variation related to economic differences, in children around the globe. The variations encompass the acceptance of very young patients and those with associated comorbidities to chronic dialysis programs, the use of automated PD and expensive drugs, and the diagnostic management of peritonitis. These variations in practice related to economic difference do not appear to affect PD technique survival; however, economic conditions seem to affect mortality on dialysis and standardized height, a marker of global child morbidity.

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Available from: Franz Schaefer, Aug 28, 2015
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    • "While Norway (0.943) and Australia (0.929) had the highest HDI among the countries studied (Table 1), which possibly contributes to the higher CR (50–54) in these nations, the HDI of Turkey was the lowest (Table 1), which is likely to be related to its having the lowest CR (50–54) (Table 2). Research indicates that HDI assessments are affected by the mortality, morbidity, and economic conditions of a country [20,30]. This suggests that a comfortable socioeconomic environment based on high levels of economic success and human development might help the elderly to maintain the requisite social health required for successful aging. "
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    BMC International Health and Human Rights 03/2013; 13(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1472-698X-13-16 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • 07/2012; 32(4):393-4. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2012.00168
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND METHODS: Hospitalization and mortality rates in pediatric dialysis patients remain unacceptably high. Although studies have associated the presence of comorbidities with an increased risk for death in a relatively small number of pediatric dialysis patients, no large-scale study had set out to describe the comorbidities seen in pediatric dialysis patients or to evaluate the impact of those comorbidities on outcomes beyond the newborn period. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of comorbidities in a large international cohort of pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry and began to assess potential associations between those comorbidities and hospitalization rates and mortality. RESULTS: Information on comorbidities was available for 1830 patients 0 - 19 years of age at dialysis initiation. Median age at dialysis initiation was 9.1 years [interquartile range (IQR): 10.9], median follow-up for calculation of hospitalization rates was 15.2 months (range: 0.2 - 80.9 months), and total follow-up time in the registry was 2095 patient-years. At least 1 comorbidity had been reported for 602 of the patients (32.9%), with 283 (15.5%) having cognitive impairment; 230 (12.6%), motor impairment; 167 (9.1%), cardiac abnormality; 76 (4.2%), pulmonary abnormality; 212 (11.6%), ocular abnormality; and 101 (5.5%), hearing impairment. Of the 150 patients (8.2%) that had a defined syndrome, 85% had at least 1 nonrenal comorbidity, and 64% had multiple comorbidities. The presence of at least 1 comorbidity was associated with a higher hospitalization rate [hospital days per 100 observation days: 1.7 (IQR: 5.8) vs 1.2 (IQR: 3.9), p = 0.001] and decreased patient survival (4-year survival rate: 73% vs 90%, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one third of pediatric CPD patients in a large international cohort had at least 1 comorbidity, and multiple comorbidities were frequently reported among patients with a defined syndrome. Preliminary analysis suggests an association between comorbidity and poor outcome in those patients. As this powerful international registry matures, further multivariate analyses will be important to more clearly define the impact of comorbidities on hospitalization rates and mortality in pediatric CPD patients.
    07/2012; 32(4):410-8. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2012.00124
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