Structural Basis of Rev1-mediated Assembly of a Quaternary Vertebrate Translesion Polymerase Complex Consisting of Rev1, Heterodimeric Polymerase (Pol) ζ, and Pol κ.
ABSTRACT DNA synthesis across lesions during genomic replication requires concerted actions of specialized DNA polymerases in a potentially mutagenic process known as translesion synthesis. Current models suggest that translesion synthesis in mammalian cells is achieved in two sequential steps, with a Y-family DNA polymerase (κ, η, ι, or Rev1) inserting a nucleotide opposite the lesion and with the heterodimeric B-family polymerase ζ, consisting of the catalytic Rev3 subunit and the accessory Rev7 subunit, replacing the insertion polymerase to carry out primer extension past the lesion. Effective translesion synthesis in vertebrates requires the scaffolding function of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rev1 that interacts with the Rev1-interacting region of polymerases κ, η, and ι and with the Rev7 subunit of polymerase ζ. We report the purification and structure determination of a quaternary translesion polymerase complex consisting of the Rev1 CTD, the heterodimeric Pol ζ complex, and the Pol κ Rev1-interacting region. Yeast two-hybrid assays were employed to identify important interface residues of the translesion polymerase complex. The structural elucidation of such a quaternary translesion polymerase complex encompassing both insertion and extension polymerases bridged by the Rev1 CTD provides the first molecular explanation of the essential scaffolding function of Rev1 and highlights the Rev1 CTD as a promising target for developing novel cancer therapeutics to suppress translesion synthesis. Our studies support the notion that vertebrate insertion and extension polymerases could structurally cooperate within a megatranslesion polymerase complex (translesionsome) nucleated by Rev1 to achieve efficient lesion bypass without incurring an additional switching mechanism.
SourceAvailable from: Andria C Schibler[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ) is exceptionally important for controlling mutagenesis and genetic instability. REV3L comprises the catalytic subunit, while REV7 (MAD2L2) is considered an accessory subunit. However, it has not been established that the role of REV7 in DNA damage tolerance is necessarily connected with mammalian pol ζ, and there is accumulating evidence that REV7 and REV3L have independent functions. Analysis of pol ζ has been hampered by difficulties in expression of REV3L in mammalian cells, and lack of a functional complementation system. Here, we report that REV7 interacts with full-length REV3L in vivo and we identify a new conserved REV7 interaction site in human REV3L (residues 1993-2003), distinct from the known binding site (residues 1877-1887). Mutation of both REV7-binding sites eliminates the REV3L-REV7 interaction. In vivo complementation shows that both REV7-binding sites in REV3L are necessary for preventing spontaneous chromosome breaks and conferring resistance to UV radiation and cisplatin. This demonstrates a damage-specific function of REV7 in pol ζ, in contrast to the distinct roles of REV3L and REV7 in primary cell viability and embryogenesis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; 43(2). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1385 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Switching between replicative and translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases are crucial events for the completion of genomic DNA synthesis when the replication machinery encounters lesions in the DNA template. In eukaryotes, the translesional DNA polymerase η (Polη) plays a central role for accurate bypass of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, the predominant DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet irradiation. Polη deficiency is responsible for a variant form of the Xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) syndrome, characterized by a predisposition to skin cancer. Here, we show that the FF483-484 amino acids in the human Polη (designated F1 motif) are necessary for the interaction of this TLS polymerase with POLD2, the B subunit of the replicative DNA polymerase δ, both in vitro and in vivo. Mutating this motif impairs Polη function in the bypass of both an N-2-acetylaminofluorene adduct and a TT-CPD lesion in cellular extracts. By complementing XPV cells with different forms of Polη, we show that the F1 motif contributes to the progression of DNA synthesis and to the cell survival after UV irradiation. We propose that the integrity of the F1 motif of Polη, necessary for the Polη/POLD2 interaction, is required for the establishment of an efficient TLS complex. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2015; 43(4). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv076 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is becoming increasingly clear that processive DNA replication is threatened not only by DNA damage but also by secondary structures that can form in the DNA template. Failure to resolve these structures promptly leads to both genetic instability, for instance DNA breaks and rearrangements, and to epigenetic instability, in which inaccurate propagation of the parental chromatin state leads to unscheduled changes in gene expression. Multiple overlapping mechanisms are needed to deal with the wide range of potential DNA structural challenges to replication. This review focuses on the emerging mechanisms by which specialised DNA polymerases, best known for their role in the replication of damaged DNA, contribute to the replication of undamaged but structured DNA, particularly G quadruplexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.DNA Repair 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2015.01.004 · 3.36 Impact Factor