[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquatic habitats harbor a multitude of bacterial species. Many of these bacteria can act as pathogens to aquatic species and/or non-aquatic organisms, including humans, that come into contact with contaminated water sources or colonized aquatic organisms. In many instances, the bacteria are not pathogenic to the aquatic species they colonize and are only considered pathogens when they come into contact with humans. There is a general lack of knowledge about how the environmental lifestyle of these pathogens allows them to persist, replicate and produce the necessary pathogenic mechanisms to successfully transmit to the human host and cause disease. Recently, the zebrafish infectious disease model has emerged as an ideal system for examining aquatic pathogens, both in the aquatic environment and during infection of the human host. This review will focus on how the zebrafish has been used successfully to analyze the pathogenesis of aquatic bacterial pathogens.
Developmental and comparative immunology 03/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alfa levels are linked to disease severity in patients with inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis. Inhibitors of this cytokine are commonly used with significant success in the treatment of such inflammatory disorders. Their use, however, can be plagued by infectious complications. An awareness of potential infections associated with these therapies is critical in order to maximize preventive efforts both before and during therapy. This review provides a guide for dermatologists caring for patients in need of this type of biologic therapy to preemptively address the infectious risks. Part I of this continuing medical education article reviews background information on the various infectious risks associated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy and appropriate historical data to obtain in the context of pretherapy evaluations.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 07/2014; 71(1):1.e1-1.e8. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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