Photodynamic activity of viral nanoparticles conjugated with C60.
ABSTRACT The development of viral nanoparticles (VNP) displaying multiple copies of the buckyball (C(60)) and their photodynamic activity is described. VNP-C(60) conjugates were assembled using click chemistry. Cell uptake and cell killing using white light therapy and a prostate cancer cell line is demonstrated.
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ABSTRACT: Efficient drug delivery to tumors is of ever-increasing importance. Single-visit diagnosis and treatment sessions are the goal of future theranostics. In this work, a noncovalent PDT cancer drug-gold nanoparticle (Au NP) conjugate system performed a rapid drug release and deep penetration of the drug into tumors within hours. The drug delivery mechanism of the PDT drug through Au NPs into tumors by passive accumulation was investigated via fluorescence imaging, elemental analysis, and histological staining. The pharmacokinetics of the conjugates over a 7-day test period showed rapid drug excretion, as monitored via the fluorescence of the drug in urine. Moreover, the biodistribution of Au NPs in this study period indicated clearance of the NPs from the mice. This study suggests that noncovalent delivery via Au NPs provides an attractive approach for cancer drugs to penetrate deep into the center of tumors.Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2011; 133(8):2583-91. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fullerenes such as C(60) show promise as functional components in several emerging technologies. For biomedical applications, C(60) has been used in gene- and drug-delivery vectors, as imaging agents, and as photosensitizers in cancer therapy. A major drawback of C(60) for bioapplications is its insolubility in water. To overcome this limitation, we covalently attached C(60) derivatives to Cowpea mosaic virus and bacteriophage Qbeta virus-like particles, which are examples of naturally occurring viral nanoparticle (VNP) structures that have been shown to be promising candidates for biomedicine. Two different labeling strategies were employed, giving rise to water-soluble, stable VNP-C(60) and VNP-PEG-C(60) conjugates. Samples were characterized using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and Western blotting. "Click" chemistry bioconjugation using a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified propargyl-O-PEG-C(60) derivative gave rise to high loadings of fullerene on the VNP surface, as indicated by the imaging of individual C(60) units using STEM. The cellular uptake of dye-labeled VNP-PEG-C(60) complexes in a human cancer cell line was found by confocal microscopy to be robust, showing that cell internalization was not inhibited by the attached C(60) units. These results open the door for the development of novel therapeutic devices with potential applications in photoactivated tumor therapy.Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2009; 131(47):17093-5. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid aptamers offer significant potential as convenient and evolvable targeting groups for drug delivery. To attach them to the surface of a genome-free viral capsid carrier, an efficient oxidative coupling strategy has been developed. The method involves the periodate-mediated reaction of phenylene diamine substituted oligonucleotides with aniline groups installed on the outer surface of the capsid shells. Up to 60 DNA strands can be attached to each viral capsid with no apparent loss of base-pairing capabilities or protein stability. The ability of the capsids to bind specific cellular targets was demonstrated through the attachment of a 41-nucleotide sequence that targets a tyrosine kinase receptor on Jurkat T cells. After the installation of a fluorescent dye on the capsid interior, capsids bearing the cell-targeting sequence showed significant levels of binding to the cells relative to those of control samples. Colocalization experiments using confocal microscopy indicated that the capsids were endocytosed and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. These observations suggest that aptamer-labeled capsids could be used for the targeted drug delivery of acid-labile prodrugs that would be preferentially released upon lysosomal acidification.Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2009; 131(31):11174-8. · 10.68 Impact Factor