In July 2010, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommended the systematic administration of rotavirus vaccines for all infants in Canada. According to the Erickson and De Wals framework, multiple factors need to be evaluated before implementing such a decision, including the study of the acceptability of this vaccine by the general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February 10 to February 18, 2011, at the Sherbrooke University Hospital Center in the province of Quebec. A questionnaire, based upon the Health Belief Model (HBM) and theoretical planned action, was self-administered to pregnant or early post-partum women. The variables collected included socio-demographic data, past experience with gastroenteritis, cues to vaccination and HBM dimensions. The associations between questionnaire variables and vaccination intention were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 343 respondents, only 29% had already heard about rotavirus vaccination and among these, the intention of vaccination was 74%. In multivariate analysis, having a perception of infant vulnerability to gastroenteritis (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0) and having no other child at home (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.2) were factors positively associated with a higher intention of vaccination, contrary to having already heard about the rotavirus vaccine in the media (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). The three cues independently associated with intention of vaccination were the reimbursement of the vaccine (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.7), its recommendation by a doctor (OR=21.2, 95% CI 5.8-75.9) and its protection against the most severe forms of gastroenteritis (OR=4.4, 95% CI 1.4-13.6). To improve the success of this new vaccination program, several key messages should be integrated in the information made available to the general population: (1) rotavirus gastroenteritis is a mandatory infection for every child <5 years; (2) the vaccine is reimbursed and included in the provincial vaccination program; and (3) the vaccine protects against the worst forms of gastroenteritis. Finally, support should be offered to physicians as they play a key role in public acceptance of new vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine “hesitancy” is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine.
The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy.
A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012.
Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific – varying across time, place and vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study aimed to identify characteristics that affect parental decisions about rotavirus vaccination, to determine the relative importance of those characteristics and subsequently to estimate vaccination coverage for different implementation strategies.
A Discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was sent to the parents of 1250 newborns aged 6 weeks (response rate 37.3%). Mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the five included rotavirus vaccine and implementation characteristics; vaccine effectiveness, frequency of severe side effects, protection duration, the healthcare facility that administrates vaccination and out-of-pocket costs. Based on the utility functions of the mixed-logit model, the potential vaccination coverage was estimated for different vaccine scenarios and implementation strategies.
All characteristics, except for healthcare facility that administrates vaccination, influenced parental willingness to vaccinate their newborn against rotavirus. Parents were willing to trade 20.2 percentage points vaccine effectiveness for the lowest frequency of severe side effects (i.e., 1 in 1,000,000) or 20.8 percentage points for a higher protection duration. Potential vaccination coverage ranged between 22.7 and 86.2%, depending on vaccine scenario (i.e., vaccine effectiveness and protection duration) and implementation strategy (i.e., out-of-pocket costs and healthcare facility that administrates vaccination).
When deciding about vaccination against rotavirus, parents are mostly driven by the out-of-pocket costs, vaccine effectiveness, protection duration, and frequency of severe side effects. The highest vaccination coverage is expected for a vaccine with high effectiveness and protection duration that is implemented within the current National Immunization Program context. Implementation of the same rotavirus vaccine in the free market will result in lowest coverage.
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