Effect of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Macular Pigment and Visual Function in Patients with Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improves macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with probable AMD who were 50 to 79 years of age were screened for study eligibility from the local communities. One hundred eight subjects with early AMD were recruited. INTERVENTION: Early AMD patients were assigned randomly to receive 10 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 20 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 10 mg/day lutein plus 10 mg/day zeaxanthin (n = 27); or placebo (n = 27) for 48 weeks. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function variables were assessed at baseline, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was MPOD. Secondary outcomes were visual function variables including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), photorecovery time, and Amsler grid testing results. RESULTS: Macular pigment optical density increased significantly by a mean±standard error of 0.076±0.022 density unit in the 20-mg lutein group and 0.058±0.027 density unit in the lutein and zeaxanthin group during 48 weeks. There was a significant dose-response effect for lutein supplementation, and the changes in MPOD from baseline to 48 weeks were correlated negatively with baseline MPOD in all active treatment groups (r = -0.56; P<0.001). At 48 weeks, a trend toward improvement was seen in BCVA, and there was a significant between-group difference in CS at 3 and 6 cycles/degree between the 20-mg lutein group and the placebo group. The increase in MPOD related positively to the reduction in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA (r = -0.31; P<0.01) and the increases in CS at 4 spatial frequencies (r ranging from 0.26 to 0.38; all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with early AMD, supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improved macular pigment, which played a causative role in boosting visual function and might prevent the progression of AMD. Future studies are required to evaluate the effect of these carotenoids on the incidence of late AMD. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
SourceAvailable from: David A Hasman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids present in highly pigmented vegetables and fruits. Lutein is selectively accumulated in the brain relative to other carotenoids. Recent evidence has linked lutein to cognition in older adults, but little is known about lutein in young children, despite structural brain development. We determined lutein intake using FFQ, one 24 h recall and three 24 h recalls, plasma lutein concentrations and their association with cognition in 160 children 5·6-5·9 years of age, at low risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Plasma lutein was skewed, with a median of 0·23 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 0·11-0·53) µmol/l. Plasma lutein showed a higher correlation with lutein intake estimated as the average of three 24 h recalls (r 0·479; P = 0·001), rather than one 24 h recall (r 0·242; P = 0·003) or FFQ (r 0·316; P = 0·001). The median lutein intake was 697 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 178-5287) µg/d based on three 24 h recalls. Lutein intake was inversely associated with SFA intake, but dietary fat or SFA intakes were not associated with plasma lutein. No associations were found between plasma lutein or lutein intake and any measure of cognition. While subtle independent effects of lutein on child cognition are possible, separating these effects from covariates making an impact on both child diet and cognition may be difficult.05/2014; 3:e11. DOI:10.1017/jns.2014.10
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the effects of lutein supplementation on plasma lutein concentrations and the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: In this double-masked placebo-controlled study, 20 patients received lutein 20 mg/day and 19 received placebo. The plasma lutein concentration and MPOD using autofluorescence spectrometry (density unit, DU) were measured at baseline and 1 and 4 months. Results: The mean plasma lutein concentrations and MPOD values in the lutein and control groups, respectively, were 91.5 and 78.2 ng/ml and 0.444 and 0.437 DU at baseline; 204.9 and 79.3 ng/ml and 0.460 and 0.442 DU at 1 month; and 228.0 and 78.4 ng/ml and 0.441 and 0.421 DU at 4 months. The plasma concentration in the lutein group was significantly higher than in controls at 1 and 4 months (P<0.0001 for both comparisons); however, the MPOD values did not differ significantly between groups at 1 (P=0.479) or 4 months (P=0.883). In patients with a plasma lutein concentration below the mean level in 20 age-matched normal subjects (mean 105.3 ng/ml; n=13 in lutein group, n=15 in control group), the control MPOD values significantly (P=0.0430) decreased at 4 months (mean baseline, 0.437 DU; 4-month, 0.404 DU). The MPOD in the lutein group remained at the baseline level (mean baseline, 0.426 DU; 4-month, 0.438 DU) (P=0.6542). Conclusions: The MPOD did not increase in patients with CSC with short-term lutein supplementation. However, among patients with low plasma lutein, supplemental lutein prevented a decline in MPOD that was observed in control subjects.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 07/2014; 55(8). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-14470 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review of lutein by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.Journal of Dietary Supplements 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/19390211.2014.988577