Effect of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Macular Pigment and Visual Function in Patients with Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improves macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with probable AMD who were 50 to 79 years of age were screened for study eligibility from the local communities. One hundred eight subjects with early AMD were recruited. INTERVENTION: Early AMD patients were assigned randomly to receive 10 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 20 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 10 mg/day lutein plus 10 mg/day zeaxanthin (n = 27); or placebo (n = 27) for 48 weeks. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function variables were assessed at baseline, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was MPOD. Secondary outcomes were visual function variables including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), photorecovery time, and Amsler grid testing results. RESULTS: Macular pigment optical density increased significantly by a mean±standard error of 0.076±0.022 density unit in the 20-mg lutein group and 0.058±0.027 density unit in the lutein and zeaxanthin group during 48 weeks. There was a significant dose-response effect for lutein supplementation, and the changes in MPOD from baseline to 48 weeks were correlated negatively with baseline MPOD in all active treatment groups (r = -0.56; P<0.001). At 48 weeks, a trend toward improvement was seen in BCVA, and there was a significant between-group difference in CS at 3 and 6 cycles/degree between the 20-mg lutein group and the placebo group. The increase in MPOD related positively to the reduction in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA (r = -0.31; P<0.01) and the increases in CS at 4 spatial frequencies (r ranging from 0.26 to 0.38; all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with early AMD, supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improved macular pigment, which played a causative role in boosting visual function and might prevent the progression of AMD. Future studies are required to evaluate the effect of these carotenoids on the incidence of late AMD. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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- "Interim, a multitude of intervention studies was conducted to examine whether the dietary intake of xanthophylls of various origins is able to improve MPOD. Consistently to our results, an increased intake led to elevated concentrations of these xanthophyll carotenoids in blood and macula    . Unfortunately , there is a lack of studies comparing the plasma/macula response after the intervention with food and pure xanthophylls. "
ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial degenerative disease of the retina, which accounts for slowly progressive visual impairment in the elderly. An increased dietary intake of xanthophylls is suggested to be inversely related to the risk of macular disease. The present study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial examining the influence of a short-term intervention with an oleaginous extract of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L. (kale) on plasma xanthophyll concentrations and the optical density of the macular pigment xanthophylls (MPOD). Twenty patients with non-exudative AMD were recruited for a 10-wk study period (2-wk run-in, 4-wk intervention, 4-wk washout). All participants received 50 mL of a beverage containing either an oleaginous extract of kale (kale) or refined rapeseed oil (placebo). The verum product provides 10 mg lutein and 3 mg zeaxanthin per day. The concentrations of the xanthophylls in plasma and the MPOD increased significantly in the kale group after 4 wk of intervention. The successive washout period resulted in a significant decline of the values in plasma and macula. The values at the end of the study were still significantly higher than the initial values. Nevertheless, the improvements did not persist over 4 wk of washout. The distribution of the xanthophylls in the macula seems to be more dynamic than originally assumed.Nutrition 11/2013; 29(11-12):1412-1417. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.05.012 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of asthenopia and identify any associated risk factors in the college students in Xi'an, China. From April to September 2012, 1 500 students from five universities in Xi'an were selected according to a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data on demographic features, lifestyle or dietary habits, health status, living environment conditions, sleep and mental status, and asthenopia symptoms were collected through a self-administered validated questionnaire. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression analysis modified by the factor analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors for asthenopia. Fifty-seven percent of the college students complained of asthenopia. Statistically significant risk factors for asthenopia in the univariate analysis included 13 variables. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the use of computer and asthenopia (OR 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09 to 1.35). Good sleep and mental status (OR 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76 to 0.97), good living environment conditions (OR 0.67, 95%CI: 0.60 to 0.76), and high intake of green leafy vegetables (OR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.80 to 0.98) were found to be strong predictors of decreasing the occurrence of asthenopia complaints. Asthenopia symptom appears to be common among college students; and it is strongly associated with computer use, psychosocial state, environment conditions and dietary habits, suggesting that additional studies are warranted to verify these risk factors and establish prevention guidelines, especially for college students.International Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2013; 6(5):718-22. DOI:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2013.05.31 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily supplementation with lutein (L) capsules on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual acuity in early AMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration). METHODS: A 12 month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-centre investigation of the effects of L supplementation in early AMD was conducted. 72 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 8.7) were randomly assigned to either L (lutein, n=36) or P (placebo, n=36) groups. MPOD and best corrected visual acuity (LogMAR) were measured. Blood serum samples were collected RESULTS: Mean MPOD increased for the L group from 0.38±0.19 to 0.53±0.22 optical density (OD) units. A mixed design ANOVA showed this was statistically significant (p<0.001). There was no change in MPOD for the P group. There was no significant change in VA in the L group (n=36). The P group (n=36) showed a significant deterioration from 0.05 ± 0.13 to 0.09 ± 0.13, (p < 0.05). To avoid ceiling effects, 2 sub-groups of patients with VA worse than 0.06 at baseline were re-analysed. In the L sub-group (n= 19) a mean improvement in VA from 0.23±0.12 at baseline to 0.16±0.10 at visit 4 was observed (p< 0.05). The improvement in VA in the L sub-group was significant compared to the deterioration in the P group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Lutein supplementation increases MPOD levels in early-stage AMD patients. VA measurements suggest the progress of AMD might be slowed in some patients with augmented levels of MP.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 02/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1167/iovs.12-10715 · 3.66 Impact Factor