Article

The bZIP Dimer Localizes at DNA Full-Sites Where Each Basic Region Can Alternately Trans locate and Bind to Subsites at the Half-Site

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6, Canada.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.01). 08/2012; 51(33):6632-43. DOI: 10.1021/bi300718f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Crystal structures of the GCN4 bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) with the AP-1 or CRE site show how each GCN4 basic region binds to a 4 bp cognate half-site as a single DNA target; however, this may not always fully describe how bZIP proteins interact with their target sites. Previously, we showed that the GCN4 basic region interacts with all 5 bp in half-site TTGCG (termed 5H-LR) and that 5H-LR comprises two 4 bp subsites, TTGC and TGCG, which individually are also target sites of the basic region. In this work, we explore how the basic region interacts with 5H-LR when the bZIP dimer localizes to full-sites. Using AMBER molecular modeling, we simulated GCN4 bZIP complexes with full-sites containing 5H-LR to investigate in silico the interface between the basic region and 5H-LR. We also performed in vitro investigation of bZIP-DNA interactions at a number of full-sites that contain 5H-LR versus either subsite: we analyzed results from DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and from EMSA titrations to quantify binding affinities. Our computational and experimental results together support a highly dynamic DNA-binding model: when a bZIP dimer localizes to its target full-site, the basic region can alternately recognize either subsite as a distinct target at 5H-LR and translocate between the subsites, potentially by sliding and hopping. This model provides added insights into how α-helical DNA-binding domains of transcription factors can localize to their gene regulatory sequences in vivo.

0 Followers
 · 
96 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The yeast GCN4 gene product is necessary for the transcriptional induction of many amino acid biosynthetic genes in response to conditions of amino acid starvation. We synthesized radioactively pure GCN4 protein by in vitro translation of mRNA produced by in vitro transcription with SP6 RNA polymerase. GCN4 protein binds specifically to the 20 bp region of the HIS3 gene that is critical for transcriptional regulation in vivo and contains the TGACTC sequence common to coregulated genes. A synthetic GCN4 mutant protein lacking the 40 C-terminal amino acids fails to bind DNA; this correlates with a gcn4 mutant gene that is nonfunctional in vivo. Finally, GCN4 protein binds to the promoter regions of coordinately regulated genes, but not to analogous regions of other genes. We suggest that GCN4 protein is a specific transcription factor, and we describe a molecular model for the general control of amino acid biosynthetic genes.
    Cell 12/1985; 43(1):177-88. DOI:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90022-4 · 33.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expression of the yeast his3 and other amino acid biosynthetic genes is induced during conditions of amino acid starvation. The coordination of this response is mediated by a positive regulatory protein called GCN4, which binds specifically to regulatory sites upstream of all coregulated genes and stimulates their transcription. The nucleotide sequence requirements of the his3 regulatory site were determined by analysis of numerous point mutations obtained by a novel method of cloning oligonucleotides. Almost all single base pair mutations within the nine base pair sequence ATGACTCTT significantly reduce his3 induction in vivo and GCN4 binding in vitro, whereas changes outside this region have minimal effects. One mutation, which generates a sequence that most closely resembles the consensus for 15 coregulated genes, increases both the level of induction and the affinity for GCN4 protein. The palindromic nature of the optimal sequence, ATGACTCAT, suggest that GCN4 protein binds as a dimer to adjacent half-sites that possibly overlap.
    Science 11/1986; 234(4775):451-7. DOI:10.1126/science.3532321 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association and dissociation kinetics of the Escherichia coli lac repressor--operator (RO) complex have been examined as a function of monovalent ion concentration and operator-containing DNA fragment length in order to investigate the mechanisms used by repressor in locating (and dissociating from) the operator site. Association rate constants (ka) measured with an 80- or a 203-base-pair lac operator containing DNA fragment are 3--5-fold smaller than those determined with a 6700-base-pair operator fragment or with intact lambda plac5 DNA (50000 base pairs) at all salt concentrations tested. At salt concentrations less than approximately 0.1 M KCl, association rate constants to all operator-containing DNA fragments (except lambda plac5 DNA) are insensitive to variations in salt concentration, but the limiting low salt value of ka appears to depend upon operator-containing DNA length. The value of ka for lambda plac5 DNA decreases significantly from the approximately 0.1 M KCl maximum at low salt. Above approximately 0.1 M KCl, repressor--operator association rate constants for all operator-containing DNA substrates tested show a similar decrease with increasing salt concentration, which does not appear to depend upon the length of the DNA molecule (except for the very small DNA fragments). In contrast to the association reaction, kd, the dissociation rate constant, decreases linearly (on a log kd vs. log [KCl] plot) with decreasing salt concentration over virtually the entire salt concentration range studied (0.05--0.2 M KCl). These results are consistent with the explanation of the unusually fast association kinetics for this system in terms of a two-step model in which repressor initially diffuses to a nonoperator DNA binding site (forming an RD complex) and then rapidly "scans" (in a locally correlated fashion) adjacent sites until the operator is located or the repressor dissociates from the chain. Dissociation of the RO complex follows the same two-step process in reverse. Quantitative comparisons are made between these results and the theoretical predictions of the two facilitating translocation mechanisms (one-dimensional "sliding" along the DNA double helix and direct transfer between DNA segments) developed in the first paper of this series [Berg, O. G., Winter, R. B., & von Hippel, P. H. (1981) Biochemistry (first paper of three in this issue)]. We conclude that the experimental data for the "faster-than-diffusion-controlled" interaction of repressor and operator can be quantitatively modeled by a two-step process in which sliding is the dominant transfer mechanism. Molecular models of the initial nonspecific binding event (including "hopping") as well as sliding and interchain transfer are discussed, and the possible roles of facilitated translocation mechanisms of the diffusion-driven type in this and other in vitro and in vivo protein--nucleic acid interaction processes are considered.
    Biochemistry 12/1981; 20(24):6961-77. DOI:10.1021/bi00527a030 · 3.01 Impact Factor
Show more