Gene Expression Profiles in White Blood Cells of Volunteers Exposed to a 50 Hz Electromagnetic Field
ABSTRACT Consistent and independently replicated laboratory evidence to support a causative relationship between environmental exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at power line frequencies and the associated increase in risk of childhood leukemia has not been obtained. In particular, although gene expression responses have been reported in a wide variety of cells, none has emerged as robust, widely replicated effects. DNA microarrays facilitate comprehensive searches for changes in gene expression without a requirement to select candidate responsive genes. To determine if gene expression changes occur in white blood cells of volunteers exposed to an ELF-EMF, each of 17 pairs of male volunteers age 20-30 was subjected either to a 50 Hz EMF exposure of 62.0 ± 7.1 μT for 2 h or to a sham exposure (0.21 ± 0.05 μT) at the same time (11:00 a.m. to 13:00 p.m.). The alternative regime for each volunteer was repeated on the following day and the two-day sequence was repeated 6 days later, with the exception that a null exposure (0.085 ± 0.01 μT) replaced the sham exposure. Five blood samples (10 ml) were collected at 2 h intervals from 9:00 to 17:00 with five additional samples during the exposure and sham or null exposure periods on each study day. RNA samples were pooled for the same time on each study day for the group of 17 volunteers that were subjected to the ELF-EMF exposure/sham or null exposure sequence and were analyzed on Illumina microarrays. Time courses for 16 mammalian genes previously reported to be responsive to ELF-EMF exposure, including immediate early genes, stress response, cell proliferation and apoptotic genes were examined in detail. No genes or gene sets showed consistent response profiles to repeated ELF-EMF exposures. A stress response was detected as a transient increase in plasma cortisol at the onset of either exposure or sham exposure on the first study day. The cortisol response diminished progressively on subsequent exposures or sham exposures, and was attributable to mild stress associated with the experimental protocol.
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ABSTRACT: Low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are abundantly present in modern society and in the last 20 years the interest about the possible effect of extremely low frequency (ELF) EMFs on human health has increased progressively. Epidemiological studies, designed to verify whether EMFs exposure may be a potential risk factor for health, have led to controversial results. The possible association between EMFs and an increased incidence of childhood leukemia, brain tumors or neurodegenerative diseases was not fully elucidated. On the other hand, EMFs are widely used, in neurology, psychiatry, rheumatology, orthopedics and dermatology, both in diagnosis and in therapy. In vitro studies may help to evaluate the mechanism by which LF-EMFs affect biological systems. As in vitro model of wound healing were used keratinocytes (HaCaT), neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) as a model for analysis of differentiation, metabolism and functions related to neurodegenerative processes, monocytic cell line (THP-1) as a model for inflammation and cytokines production, while leukemic cell line (K562) was used as a model of hematopoietic differentiation. MCP-1, a chemokine that regulates the migration and infiltration of memory T cells, natural killer (NK), monocytes and epithelial cells, has been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Since, varying the parameters of EMFs different effects may be observed, we have studied MCP-1 expression in HaCaT, SH-SY5Y, THP-1 and K562 exposed to a sinusoidal EMF at 50Hz frequency with a flux density of 1 mT (rms). Our preliminary results showed that EMF-exposure differently modifies the expression of MCP-1 in different cell types. Thus, the MCP-1 expression needs to be better determined, with additional studies, with different parameters and times of exposure to ELF-EMF.Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 08/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.07.006 · 0.74 Impact Factor
Chapter: Adamantia F. Fragopoulou & Lukas H. Margaritis. SECTION 5: EVIDENCE FOR EFFECTS ON GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION. BioInitiative Working Group, Cindy Sage and David O. Carpenter, Editors. BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Radiation at www.bioinitiative.org, December 31, 2012BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Radiation, Edited by Cindy Sage, David O. Carpenter, 12/2012: chapter SECTION 5: EVIDENCE FOR EFFECTS ON GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION;