Travel-Associated Enteric Infections Diagnosed After Return to the United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2009
ABSTRACT Approximately 40% of US travelers to less developed countries experience diarrheal illness. Using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), we describe travel-associated enteric infections during 2004-2009, characterizing the patients, pathogens, and destinations involved.
FoodNet conducts active surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections with 9 pathogens transmitted commonly through food. Travel-associated infections are infections diagnosed in the United States but likely acquired abroad based on a pathogen-specific time window between return from international travel to diagnosis. We compare the demographic, clinical, and exposure-related characteristics of travelers with those of nontravelers and estimate the risk of travel-associated infections by destination, using US Department of Commerce data.
Of 64,039 enteric infections reported to FoodNet with information about travel, 8270 (13%) were travel associated. The pathogens identified most commonly in travelers were Campylobacter (42%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (32%), and Shigella (13%). The most common travel destinations were Mexico, India, Peru, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. Most travel-associated infections occurred in travelers returning from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Risk was greatest after travel to Africa (75.9 cases per 100,000 population), followed by Asia (22.7 cases per 100,000), and LAC (20.0 cases per 100,000).
The Latin America and Caribbean region accounts for most travel-associated enteric infections diagnosed in the United States, although travel to Africa carries the greatest risk. Although FoodNet surveillance does not cover enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, a common travel-associated infection, this information about other key enteric pathogens can be used by travelers and clinicians in pre- and posttravel consultations.
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica causes an estimated 1 million cases of domestically acquired foodborne illness in humans annually in the United States; Enteritidis (SE) is the most common serotype. Public health authorities, regulatory agencies, food producers, and food processors need accurate information about rates and changes in SE infection to implement and evaluate evidence-based control policies and practices. We analyzed the incidence of human SE infection during 1996-2009 in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), an active, population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed infections. We compared FoodNet incidence with passively collected data from complementary surveillance systems and with rates of SE isolation from processed chickens and egg products; shell eggs are not routinely tested. We also compared molecular subtyping patterns of SE isolated from humans and chickens. Since the period 1996-1999, the incidence of human SE infection in FoodNet has increased by 44%. This change is mirrored in passive national surveillance data. The greatest relative increases were in young children, older adults, and FoodNet sites in the southern United States. The proportion of patients with SE infection who reported recent international travel has decreased in recent years, whereas the proportion of chickens from which SE was isolated has increased. Similar molecular subtypes of SE are commonly isolated from humans and chickens. Most SE infections in the United States are acquired from domestic sources, and the problem is growing. Chicken and eggs are likely major sources of SE. Continued close attention to surveillance data is needed to monitor the impact of recent regulatory control measures.Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54 Suppl 5:S488-97. DOI:10.1093/cid/cis231 · 9.42 Impact Factor
- Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 54 Suppl 5(5):S381-4. DOI:10.1093/cid/cis257 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the recent advances in vaccination against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and highlights the data supporting the development of next generation vaccines to address paratyphoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. There has been increasing awareness of the disease burden caused by S. Typhi particularly in Africa and greater recognition of S. Paratyphi A's contribution to enteric fever episodes throughout Asia. Groups have been working to improve the existing typhoid vaccines and provide comprehensive data on the feasibility of their implementation in endemic settings. These data have resulted in modifications to the recommendations for typhoid vaccination in traveller markets and endemic settings, and has also led to the development of S. Paratyphi A vaccine components that can be combined with existing typhoid vaccines to generate bivalent formulations against enteric fever. The epidemiology of iNTS serovars as cause of appreciable morbidity and mortality in Africa, and the need for vaccines, has also become more widely appreciated. Current typhoid vaccines, although moderately effective for short periods of time, cannot be used in all age groups and only target one of the clinically relevant Salmonella serovars. Greater effort must be placed on the development and implementation of improved vaccines for the disease burden resulting from Typhi, Paratyphi A or iNTS infections.Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 25(5):489-99. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328356ffeb · 5.03 Impact Factor