Article

The species richness of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae, Pteromalidae) in Yemen

Fauna of Arabia 01/2006; 22(8000):449-472.

ABSTRACT A b s t r a c t : Twenty-eight species of chalcid wasps associated with figs were recorded from Yemen during a survey of arthropods using light traps and Malaise traps, conducted during 1991-1993 and 1998-2002. Blastophaga psenes (Linnaeus, 1758), Ceratosolen galili Wiebes, 1964, Platyscapa soraria Wiebes, 1980, Platyscapa awekei Wiebes, 1977, Eukoebelea sycomori Wiebes, 1968, Apocrypta longitarsus (Mayr, 1906), Sycophaga sycomori (Linnaeus, 1758) and Camarothorax mutabilis Vincent & Compton, 1992 are newly recorded from Yemen. Nigeriella scindura van Noort n. sp. and Philocaenus arrujumensis van Noort n. sp. are described. A key to the species of the Afrotropical genus Nigeriella Wiebes, 1974 is provided, and an addendum to the existing key to species of Philo-caenus Grandi, 1952 is given. The new species of Nigeriella is likely to be the pollinator of Ficus populifolia Vahl. A check list of fig tree species occurring in Yemen is presented, and this includes a list of the predicted associated fig wasp fauna for each Ficus species based on collections made elsewhere in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. About 60 species of fig wasp are estimated to occur in Yemen, of which approximately 40 % are undescribed. Seventeen (including the two new species) of the possible 34 described species of fig wasp are now known from Yemen.

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    ABSTRACT: Recent discovery of cryptic species in fig-pollinating wasps creates a puzzle for the ecological competition theory: how do two or more apparently identical species coexist? Conventional theory predicts that they should not. Chesson (Trends Ecol. Evol., 1991, 6, 26–28) identified one exception which he considered unlikely to occur in reality: coexistence might be possible if appropriate social behaviour was discriminately directed towards conspecifics and heterospecifics. Here we present an example of the exception by showing that two identical species with local mate competition and population size-dependent sex ratio adjustment may coexist. The new findings about fig-pollinating wasps provide a putative example of unexpected coexistence of identical competitors via this mechanism.
    Ecology Letters 02/2004; 7(3):165 - 169. · 17.95 Impact Factor

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May 30, 2014