Swiss children consuming breakfast regularly have better motor functional skills and are less overweight than breakfast skippers.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the associations among eating behavior, body mass index (BMI), and motor functional skills in Swiss elementary school children.
In total, 656 schoolchildren, aged 7 to 10 years, participated in the study. Five different, normalized, and standardized motor function tests (sidewise jumping, tapping, standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and shuttle run) that determine the coordinative and conditional skills were carried out with each child at 1 of 4 time points (8, 9, 10, or 11 am) along with anthropometric measurements. Furthermore, all children completed a nutrition survey including different questions on their eating habits with emphasis on breakfast and the morning snack at school.
Children consuming breakfast almost every day had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower BMI (16.7 ± 2.2 kg/m2) compared with children eating breakfast only sometimes or almost never (18.2 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 18.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2, respectively). They also reached better scores in 3 of the 5 motor function tests (standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and shuttle run, p < 0.05). Furthermore, overweight and obese children reached poorer results in 4 disciplines of the motor functional tests (sidewise jumping, standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and shuttle run) than normal-weight children, and they tended to eat lunch and dinner more frequently in front of the TV or in their rooms (p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis, BMI was a significant predictor of the results for sprint, sidewise jumping, standing long jump, and shuttle run, whereas daytime, breakfast frequency, and gender predicted only some of the outcomes.
This study clearly underlines the importance of breakfast for school-aged children: Children eating breakfast almost every day had better motor functional skills and a lower BMI than children not regularly eating breakfast. The study further hints at the importance of generally healthy nutritional habits with regard to both motor functional skills and healthy weight status.
SourceAvailable from: Virgílio Viana Ramires[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Physical fitness is strongly associated with several positive health indicators among adolescents. However, its association with body mass index status is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore the association between overweight/obesity and physical fitness among children and adolescents. The design consisted of a cross-sectional study comprising 519 Brazilian students age 7 to 15 years. BMI status was assessed according to sex- and age-specific growth charts. Physical fitness was assessed using 8 tests: sit-and-reach, stationary long jump, 1-minute curl-up, modified pull-up, medicine-ball throw, 9-minute run, 20-m run, and 4-m shuttle-run. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 24% and 12%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls in all tests, except flexibility. Normal weight students performed better than overweight and obese students in all tests, except the sit-and-reach and the medicine-ball throw. Cardiorespiratory fitness had the strongest association with BMI status. The prevalence of obese subjects classified as "most fit" was less than 10%. Higher values of body mass index were associated with declines in physical fitness, independent of age. The majority of obese children and adolescents and almost a half of those overweight were classified in the third tertile of physical fitness (least fit).Journal of physical activity & health 09/2010; 7(5):641-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Opinions about good nutrition, causes of obesity and its prevention, as well as certain eating habits, were studied in 482 Israeli children (251 boys and 231 girls), thirteen to fourteen years old. Height, weight, and triceps skinfolds were measured. Mean relative weight and relative logarithmic skinfold thickness were close to standard, although 8 per cent of the boys and 9 per cent of the girls weighed more than 120 per cent of standard weight for their age and sex. Weight was closely associated with skinfold thickness. Over two-thirds of both boys and girls believed that daily consumption of milk, bread, fruits, eggs, cheese, meat, and tomatoes is desirable, and about two-thirds stated that overeating is a cause of obesity. More overweight than thin and normal-weight children indicated that, to prevent obesity, all kinds of food are permissible, but only in limited amounts. Most children believed in the fattening value of cakes, sweets, fried and fatty food, potatoes, bread, and nuts. The belief in the fattening value of potatoes, bread, and nuts was shared by a higher percentage of overweight than of under- and normal-weight children. Overweight children, particularly girls, reported eating less bread, cake, and cream, adding less sugar to beverages, and eating sweets and ice cream less frequently than thin and normal-weight children. A higher percentage of the obese group reported skipping one meal and eating no snack at school. Overweight teen-agers appear to be more conscious of their food intake than under- and normal-weight children.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 04/1975; 66(3):264-8. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance the same morning, the parents of ten parallel school classes of 10-year-old school children at five different schools were persuaded to alter their child's breakfast regimen at home over a period of 4 successive days. A total of 195 families were provided with standard breakfasts with either low or high energy content. Uneaten food was returned and weighed. Individual children were randomly assigned to breakfast alternative on any given day. The teachers who carried out the performance assessments at school were blind to treatment condition. Voluntary physical endurance and the performance of a creativity test were significantly better after a breakfast from which children derived over 20% of their recommended daily energy intake than after a breakfast from which they obtained less than 10% of recommended values. The error rate in an addition task was negatively correlated and the rate of working in a number checking task was positively correlated with individual energy intake from the low-energy breakfast. Significantly fewer children reported feeling bad and self-estimates of hunger sensation were lower during the morning at school after the high energy breakfast. Estimates of energy intake at breakfast based on 24-h dietary recall interviews with the children carried out by telephone at their homes showed good correlation with estimates based on returned food (r = 0.89). Energy intake at breakfast as estimated from returned food had no significant effect on energy intake at school lunch as estimated by dietary recall.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 02/1997; 48(1):5-12. · 1.20 Impact Factor