[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence indicates that individuals with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of several cancers. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate the association between diabetes and risk of bladder cancer.
Pertinent studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (from January 1966 to July 2006) and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. We included case-control and cohort studies reporting relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% CIs (or data to calculate them) of bladder cancer associated with diabetes. Studies of type 1 diabetes were not included. Summary RRs were calculated using a random-effects model.
A total of 16 studies (seven case-control studies, three cohort studies and six cohort studies of diabetic patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Analysis of all studies showed that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, compared with no diabetes (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42). There was strong evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (p < 0.0001). Stratification by study design found that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in case-control studies (RR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.80, p (heterogeneity) = 0.005) and cohort studies (RR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.18-1.74, p (heterogeneity) = 0.17), but not in cohort studies of diabetic patients (RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12, p (heterogeneity) = 0.35).
Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that individuals with diabetes may have a modestly increased risk of bladder cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes is an emerging public health issue in the US, affecting 11% of Americans over the age of 20, with long-term complications that include cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. A recent meta-analysis found that bladder cancer incidence was approximately 40% higher in individuals with diabetes; however, few studies considered duration or type of therapy and had limited adjustment for potentially confounding factors.
To further investigate the potential role of diabetes in risk of bladder cancer, the authors analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in New Hampshire in which patients with bladder cancer, and controls sampled from the population, completed an interview regarding history of diabetes, cigarette smoking history, height, weight, and history of urinary tract infections.
The study consisted of 331 cases and 263 controls on whom information regarding diabetes was ascertained. History of diabetes was related to an increased bladder cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8). The association was strongest in those who had diabetes for the longest duration (OR for 16 or more years = 3.6, 1.1 to 11.2) and in those taking oral hypoglycemic medications (OR = 3.3, 1.5 to 7.1).
Our findings support an association between bladder cancer incidence and diabetes, and further suggest that the risk may be greater among patients taking oral hypoglycemics and those with diabetes of longer duration.
Cancer 04/2011; 117(7):1552-6. DOI:10.1002/cncr.25641 · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) ranks ninth in worldwide cancer incidence. It is more frequent in men than in women. We review the main established/proposed factors, both environmental and genetic, associated with bladder cancer etiology and prognosis. Data were extracted from previous reviews and original articles identified from PubMed searches, reference lists, and book chapters dealing with the reviewed topics. Evaluation and consensus of both the contribution of each factor in bladder cancer burden and the appropriateness of the available evidences was done during an ad hoc meeting held during the 18th Congress of the European Society for Urological Research. Cigarette smoking and specific occupational exposures are the main known causes of UBC. Phenacetin, chlornaphazine and cyclophosphamide also increase the risk of bladder cancer. Chronic infection by Schistosoma haematobium is a cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes are associated with an increased risk of this cancer. Vegetables and fresh fruits protect against this tumor. Regarding prognosis, there is little knowledge on the predictive role of environmental exposures and genetic polymorphisms on tumor recurrence and progression and patient's death. Although active tobacco smoking is the most commonly studied factor, no definitive conclusion can be drawn from the literature. More research is needed regarding the effect of complex etiological factors in bladder carcinogenesis. Subgroup analysis according to stage, grade, and molecular features may help in identifying specific etiological and prognostic factors involved in different bladder cancer progression pathways.
World Journal of Urology 07/2007; 25(3):285-95. DOI:10.1007/s00345-007-0168-5 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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