Food and nutrient intakes and their associations with lower BMI in middle-aged US adults: the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP)

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 08/2012; 96(3):483-91. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.025056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical trial data show that reduction in total energy intake enhances weight loss regardless of the macronutrient composition of the diet. Few studies have documented dietary patterns or nutrient intakes that favor leanness [BMI (in kg/m²) ≤25] in free-living populations.
This investigation examined associations of usual energy, food, and nutrient intakes with BMI among US participants of the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP).
The INTERMAP is an international cross-sectional study of dietary factors and blood pressure in men and women (ages 40-59 y) that includes 8 US population samples. The present study included data from 1794 Americans who were not consuming a special diet and who provided four 24-h dietary recalls and 2 timed 24-h urine collections. Multivariable linear regression with the residual method was used to adjust for energy intake; sex-specific associations were assessed for dietary intakes and urinary excretions with BMI adjusted for potential confounders including physical activity.
Lower energy intake was associated with lower BMI in both sexes. Univariately, higher intakes of fresh fruit, pasta, and rice and lower intakes of meat were associated with lower BMI; these associations were attenuated in multivariable analyses. Lower urinary sodium and intakes of total and animal protein, dietary cholesterol, saturated fats, and heme iron and higher urinary potassium and intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and magnesium were associated with lower BMI in both sexes.
The consumption of foods higher in nutrient-dense carbohydrate and lower in animal protein and saturated fat is associated with lower total energy intakes, more favorable micronutrient intakes, and lower BMI.

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