Development and Validation of QuEChERS Method for Estimation of Chlorantraniliprole Residue in Vegetables.
ABSTRACT An easy, simple and efficient analytical method was standardized and validated for the estimation of residues of chlorantraniliprole in different vegetables comprising brinjal, cabbage, capsicum, cauliflower, okra, and tomato. QuEChERS method was used for the extraction and cleanup of chlorantraniliprole residues on these vegetables. Final clear extracts of ethyl acetate were concentrated under vacuum and reconstituted into high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) grade acetonitrile, and residues were estimated using HPLC equipped with PDA detector system, C(18) column and confirmed by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS), and high performance thin layer chromatograph (HPTLC). HPLC grade acetonitrile:water (80:20, v/v) was used as mobile phase @ 0.4 mL/min. Chlorantraniliprole presented distinct peak at retention time of 9.82 min. Consistent recoveries ranging from 85% to 96% for chlorantraniliprole were observed when samples were spiked at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/kg levels. The limit of quantification of this method was worked out to be 0.10 mg/kg. Practical Application: The QuEChERS sample preparation is suitable for determination of chlorantraniliprole in brinjal, cabbage, capsicum, cauliflower, okra and tomato and thus demonstrating the great versatility of this method. The proposed analytical method using liquid chromatography techniques for the determination of chlorantraniliprole in different vegetable matrices has been demonstrated to be sensitive, fast, precise, accurate, and robust and can be used to monitor chlorantraniliprole residues in different vegetables.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pollinators such as the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, fulfil a crucial role in agriculture. In this context, tests were conducted with the insecticide chlorantraniliprole (Coragen®) as a model compound active on the ryanodine receptor of insects. RESULTS: Chronic oral exposure via pollen induced lethargic behaviour in B. terrestris workers and their offspring (drones). Indeed, in nests exposed to 0.4 mg L(-1) , representing 1/100 of the concentration recommended for use in the field, workers and drones did not take their defensive position upon stimulation and they were less active than non-exposed insects. The different risk assessment tests used here demonstrated that contact and pollen exposure had no effect on bumblebee worker survival, whereas oral exposure via sugar water caused both acute (72 h LC50 = 13 mg L(-1) ) and chronic (7 week LC50 = 7 mg L(-1) ) toxicity. Severe sublethal effects on reproduction were recorded in nests orally exposed to pollen treated with chlorantraniliprole. CONCLUSION: The present study identified an important physiological endpoint of sublethal effects on reproduction, as this is associated with lethargic behaviour after oral intake. As such, this is a factor that should now be incorporated into future risk assessments. Secondly, it confirmed that the assessment of sublethal effects on behaviour is needed for adequate risk assessment of 'potentially deleterious' compounds with a neurogenic target, as is also pointed out in the recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidelines. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.Pest Management Science 02/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor