Article

Comparative Oncogenomics Implicates the Neurofibromin 1 Gene (NF1) as a Breast Cancer Driver.

Department of Biomedical Sciences.
Genetics (Impact Factor: 4.87). 07/2012; 192(2):385-96. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.112.142802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Identifying genomic alterations driving breast cancer is complicated by tumor diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Relevant mouse models are powerful for untangling this problem because such heterogeneity can be controlled. Inbred Chaos3 mice exhibit high levels of genomic instability leading to mammary tumors that have tumor gene expression profiles closely resembling mature human mammary luminal cell signatures. We genomically characterized mammary adenocarcinomas from these mice to identify cancer-causing genomic events that overlap common alterations in human breast cancer. Chaos3 tumors underwent recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs), particularly deletion of the RAS inhibitor Neurofibromin 1 (Nf1) in nearly all cases. These overlap with human CNAs including NF1, which is deleted or mutated in 27.7% of all breast carcinomas. Chaos3 mammary tumor cells exhibit RAS hyperactivation and increased sensitivity to RAS pathway inhibitors. These results indicate that spontaneous NF1 loss can drive breast cancer. This should be informative for treatment of the significant fraction of patients whose tumors bear NF1 mutations.

0 Followers
 · 
150 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) facilitates signal transduction in Ras-dependent cancers, including pancreatic and lung carcinomas but its role in breast cancer has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate for the first time it functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer in contrast to data in other tumors. Breast cancer patients (n>1000) with high KSR1 showed better disease-free and overall survival, results also supported by Oncomine analyses, microarray data (n=2878) and genomic data from paired tumor and cell-free DNA samples revealing loss of heterozygosity. KSR1 expression is associated with high breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), high BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1) and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) levels. Phospho-profiling of major components of the canonical Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway showed no significant changes after KSR1 overexpression or silencing. Moreover, KSR1 stably transfected cells formed fewer and smaller size colonies compared to the parental ones, while in vivo mouse model also demonstrated that the growth of xenograft tumors overexpressing KSR1 was inhibited. The tumor suppressive action of KSR1 is BRCA1 dependent shown by 3D-matrigel and soft agar assays. KSR1 stabilizes BRCA1 protein levels by reducing BRCA1 ubiquitination through increasing BARD1 abundance. These data link these proteins in a continuum with clinical relevance and position KSR1 in the major oncoprotein pathways in breast tumorigenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 June 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.129.
    Oncogene 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.129 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common tumour predisposition syndrome related to germline aberrations of NF1, a tumour suppressor gene. The gene product neurofibromin is a negative regulator of the Ras cellular proliferation pathway, and also exerts tumour suppression via other mechanisms. Recent next-generation sequencing projects have revealed somatic NF1 aberrations in various sporadic tumours. NF1 plays a critical role in a wide range of tumours. NF1 alterations appear to be associated with resistance to therapy and adverse outcomes in several tumour types. Identification of a patient's germline or somatic NF1 aberrations can be challenging, as NF1 is one of the largest human genes, with a myriad of possible mutations. Epigenetic factors may also also contribute to inadequate levels of neurofibromin in cancer cells. Clinical trials of NF1-based therapeutic approaches are currently limited. Preclinical studies on neurofibromin-deficient malignancies have mainly been on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour cell lines or xenografts derived from NF1 patients. However, the emerging recognition of the role of NF1 in sporadic cancers may lead to the development of NF1-based treatments for other tumour types. Improved understanding of the implications of NF1 aberrations is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
    Oncotarget 07/2014; 5(15). · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway plays prominent roles in malignant transformation, prevention of apoptosis, drug resistance and metastasis. The expression of this pathway is frequently altered in breast cancer due to mutations at or aberrant expression of: HER2, ERalpha, BRCA1, BRCA2, EGFR1, PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, RB as well as other oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In some breast cancer cases, mutations at certain components of this pathway (e.g., PIK3CA) are associated with a better prognosis than breast cancers lacking these mutations. The expression of this pathway and upstream HER2 has been associated with breast cancer initiating cells (CICs) and in some cases resistance to treatment. The anti-diabetes drug metformin can suppress the growth of breast CICs and herceptin-resistant HER2+ cells. This review will discuss the importance of the EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway primarily in breast cancer but will also include relevant examples from other cancer types. The targeting of this pathway will be discussed as well as clinical trials with novel small molecule inhibitors. The targeting of the hormone receptor, HER2 and EGFR1 in breast cancer will reviewed in association with suppression of the EGFR/PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway.
    Oncotarget 07/2014; 5(13). · 6.63 Impact Factor