Priority pollutant degradation by the facultative methanotroph, Methylocystis strain SB2.
ABSTRACT Methylocystis strain SB2, a facultative methanotroph capable of growth on multi-carbon compounds, was screened for its ability to degrade the priority pollutants 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA), and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), as well as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) when grown on methane or ethanol. Methylocystis strain SB2 degraded 1,2-DCA and 1,1,2-TCA when grown on either substrate and cis-DCE when grown on methane. Growth of Methylocystis strain SB2 on methane was inhibited in the presence of all compounds, while only 1,1-DCE and cis-DCE inhibited growth on ethanol. No degradation of any chlorinated hydrocarbon was observed in ethanol-grown cultures when particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) activity was inhibited with the addition of acetylene, indicating that competition for binding to the pMMO between the chlorinated hydrocarbons and methane limited both methanotrophic growth and pollutant degradation when this strain was grown on methane. Characterization of Methylocystis strain SB2 found no evidence of a high-affinity form of pMMO for methane, nor could this strain utilize 1,2-DCA or its putative oxidative products 2-chloroethanol or chloroactetic acid as sole growth substrates, suggesting that this strain lacks appropriate dehydrogenases for the conversion of 1,2-DCA to glyoxylate. As ethanol: (1) can be used as an alternative growth substrate for promoting pollutant degradation by Methylocystis strain SB2 as the pMMO is not required for its growth on ethanol and (2) has been used to enhance the mobility of chlorinated hydrocarbons in situ, it is proposed that ethanol can be used to enhance both pollutant transport and biodegradation by Methylocystis strain SB2.
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ABSTRACT: All aerobic methanotrophic bacteria described to date are unable to grow on substrates containing carbon-carbon bonds. Here we demonstrate that members of the recently discovered genus Methylocella are an exception to this. These bacteria are able to use as their sole energy source the one-carbon compounds methane and methanol, as well as the multicarbon compounds acetate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and ethanol. To conclusively verify facultative growth, acetate and methane were used as model substrates in growth experiments with the type strain Methylocella silvestris BL2. Quantitative real-time PCR targeting the mmoX gene, which encodes a subunit of soluble methane monooxygenase, showed that copies of this gene increased in parallel with cell counts during growth on either acetate or methane as the sole substrate. This verified that cells possessing the genetic basis of methane oxidation grew on acetate as well as methane. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization with strain-specific and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes detected no contaminants in cultures. The growth rate and carbon conversion efficiency were higher on acetate than on methane, and when both substrates were provided in excess, acetate was preferably used and methane oxidation was shut down. Our data demonstrate that not all methanotrophic bacteria are limited to growing on one-carbon compounds. This could have major implications for understanding the factors controlling methane fluxes in the environment.Journal of Bacteriology 08/2005; 187(13):4665-70. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (> 25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20 degrees C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2 = 1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 +/- 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/1998; 64(3):922-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2011; 77(12):4234-6. · 3.95 Impact Factor