Asthma as a chronic disease of the innate and adaptive immune systems responding to viruses and allergens.
ABSTRACT Research on the pathogenesis of asthma has traditionally concentrated on environmental stimuli, genetic susceptibilities, adaptive immune responses, and end-organ alterations (particularly in airway mucous cells and smooth muscle) as critical steps leading to disease. The focus of this cascade has been the response to allergic stimuli. An alternative scheme suggests that respiratory viruses and the consequent response of the innate immune system also drives the development of asthma as well as related inflammatory diseases. This conceptual shift raises the possibility that sentinel cells such as airway epithelial cells, DCs, NKT cells, innate lymphoid cells, and macrophages also represent critical components of asthma pathogenesis as well as new targets for therapeutic discovery. A particular challenge will be to understand and balance the innate as well as the adaptive immune responses to defend the host against acute infection as well as chronic inflammatory disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Antti Joonas Koivisto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Carbon nanotubes (CNT) represent a great promise for technological and industrial development but serious concerns on their health effects have also emerged. Rod-shaped CNT are, in fact, able to induce asbestos-like pathogenicity in mice including granuloma formation in abdominal cavity and sub-pleural fibrosis. Exposure to CNT, especially in the occupational context, happens mainly by inhalation. However, little is known about the possible effects of CNT on pulmonary allergic diseases, such as asthma.Methods We exposed mice by inhalation to two types of multi-walled CNT, rigid rod-like and flexible tangled CNT, for four hours a day once or on four consecutive days. Early events were monitored immediately and 24 hours after the single inhalation exposure and the four day exposure mimicked an occupational work week. Mast cell deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of mast cells in the occurring inflammation.ResultsHere we show that even a short-term inhalation of the rod-like CNT induces novel innate immunity-mediated allergic-like airway inflammation in healthy mice. Marked eosinophilia was accompanied by mucus hypersecretion, AHR and the expression of Th2-type cytokines. Exploration of the early events by transcriptomics analysis reveals that a single 4-h exposure to rod-shaped CNT, but not to tangled CNT, causes a radical up-regulation of genes involved in innate immunity and cytokine/chemokine pathways. Mast cells were found to partially regulate the inflammation caused by rod-like CNT, but also alveaolar macrophages play an important role in the early stages.Conclusions These observations emphasize the diverse abilities of CNT to impact the immune system, and they should be taken into account for hazard assessment.Particle and Fibre Toxicology 10/2014; 11(1):48. · 9.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and COPD continue to have considerable impact on disease burden and mortality world-wide. Early diagnosis still remains a challenge, with low uptake of spirometry in many countries. Implementing best practice management for airways disease is a critical goal for health care systems - the management now includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to the lung disease, as well as recognition and treatment of comorbidities. Finally the pathogenesis of airways disease continues to be fertile field of investigation, in order to better prevent disease, slow progression, and identify relevant biomarkers. A large number of studies published in Respirology in 2012 have addressed all of these important clinical and scientific issues, and made major contributions to advance this field and hopefully improve outcomes for patients with asthma and COPD.Respirology 04/2013; 18(3). · 2.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer T (NKT) cells are credited with regulatory roles in immunity against cancers, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and bacterial and viral infections. Studies in mice and observational research in patient groups have suggested that NKT cell-based therapies could be used to prevent or treat these diseases, yet the translation into clinical settings has been disappointing. We support the view that NKT cells have regulatory characteristics that could be exploited in clinical settings, but there are doubts about the natural roles of NKT cells in vivo and whether NKT cell defects are fundamental drivers of disease in humans. In this Opinion article, we discuss the uncertainties and opportunities regarding NKT cells in humans, and the potential for NKT cells to be manipulated to prevent or treat disease.Nature reviews. Immunology. 08/2014;