The Prevalence of Celiac Disease in the United States
ABSTRACT The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in the United States is unknown. We sought to estimate CD prevalence nationwide by using a nationally representative sample.
This study included 7,798 persons aged 6 years or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Serum samples from all participants were tested for immunoglobulin A (IgA) tissue transglutaminase antibodies and, if findings were abnormal, also for IgA endomysial antibodies. Information about prior diagnosis of CD and use of a gluten-free diet (GFD) was obtained by direct interview. CD was defined as having either double-positive serology (serologically diagnosed CD) or a reported diagnosis of CD by a doctor or other health-care professional and being on a GFD (reported clinical diagnosis of CD).
CD was found in 35 participants, 29 of whom were unaware of their diagnosis. Median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 23-66 years); 20 were women and 29 were non-Hispanic white. The prevalence of CD in the United States was 0.71% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.86%), with 1.01% (95% CI, 0.78-1.31%) among non-Hispanic whites. In all, 55 participants reported following a GFD, which corresponded to a prevalence of 0.63% (95% CI, 0.36-1.07%).
The prevalence of CD in the United States was 0.71% (1 in 141), similar to that found in several European countries. However, most cases were undiagnosed. CD was rare among minority groups but affected 1% of non-Hispanic whites. Most persons who were following a GFD did not have a diagnosis of CD.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives. Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. Study design and setting. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. Results. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. Conclusions. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 48(8). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2013.809598 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We recently completed clinical trials in people with diet-treated celiac disease who were purposefully infected with the ubiquitous human hookworm, Necator americanus. Hookworm infection elicited not only parasite-specific immunity but also modified the host's immune response to gluten. After infection, mucosal IL-1β and IL-22 responses were enhanced, but IFNγ and IL-17A levels and circulating regulatory T cells following gluten challenge were suppressed, and the adaptive response to gluten acquired a helper T cell type-2 profile. In this review, we briefly, (i) highlight the utility celiac disease offers autoimmune research, (ii) discuss safety and personal experience with N. americanus, (iii) summarise the direct and bystander impact that hookworm infection has on mucosal immunity to the parasite and gluten, respectively, and (iv) speculate why this hookworm's success depends on healing its host and how this might impact on a propensity to autoimmunity.International journal for parasitology 01/2013; 43(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.12.005 · 3.40 Impact Factor
- Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 10/2013; 78(4):201-2. DOI:10.1016/j.rgmx.2013.12.001